The TI Precision Labs training series pairs theory and applied lab exercises to deepen the technical expertise of experienced engineers and accelerate the development of those early in their career. This modular, on-demand curriculum includes more than 40 hands-on trainings and lab videos, covering analog amplifier design considerations with online course work.

**Learn more about the National Instruments VirtualBench™ and TI Precision Labs - Op Amps Hardware Evaluation Module used in the hands-on lab modules.**

**Download and install TINA-TI, the preferred simulator used exclusively with TI Precision Labs - Op Amps.**

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TI Precision Labs is the electronics industry's first comprehensive online classroom for analog engineers. The on-demand curriculum pairs theory and applied lab exercises to deepen the technical expertise of experienced engineers and accelerate the development of those early in their career. This video provides an overview of the TI Precision Labs: Op Amps curriculum and includes:

- What material is covered
- Is this series for you?
- What makes this series unique
- The benefits of participation and completion for the student

TI Precision Labs is the electronics industry's first comprehensive online classroom for analog engineers. The on-demand curriculum pairs theory and applied lab exercises to deepen the technical expertise of experienced engineers and accelerate the development of those early in their career. This free modular curriculum includes over 30 hands-on trainings and lab videos, covering analog amplifier design considerations with online course work.

**How well do you know the major contributors to DC op amp input errors?**

Understanding input voltage offset and input bias current specifications at room temperature are pretty straight forward. However, what happens when the impact of temperature enters the picture? How do you correctly interpret and apply the statistical distribution in datasheet graphs for these parameters to your overall error analysis? You will walk away from this session with a thorough understanding of the two major contributors to DC op amp input errors: input voltage offset (Vos) and input bias current (Ib). We will go deeper than just the specifications and into how different input stage topologies and silicon process technologies impact Vos and Ib.

This video series covers op amp input voltage offset and input bias current theory, then applies it to a hands-on lab which includes TINA-TI circuit simulations and experimentation using a real circuit with test equipment.

This is the first of two videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier input offset voltage and output limitations. In this training we discuss op amp VOS specifications, VOS drift over temperature, input bias current specifications, and input bias current drift over temperature. We'll also show the range of VOS and IB across many different Texas Instruments op amps.

This is the second of two videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier input offset voltage and output limitations. In this training lab we walk through detailed calculations, SPICE simulations, and real-world measurements that greatly help to reinforce the concepts established in the op amp VOS and IB lecture.

**Have you ever experienced unexpected signal output behavior of an op amp, such as clipping or other non-linear behavior?**

The cause of this may be either input common mode voltage limitations or output voltage swing restrictions. Understanding data sheet specifications in the context of real world circuits will help you avoid experiencing this problem. An inside look at an op amp's input and output stages on different process technologies provides additional insight.

This video series covers the theory behind op amp input and output swing limitations, then applies it to a hands-on lab which includes TINA-TI circuit simulations and experimentation using a real circuit with test equipment.

This TI Precision Labs - OpAmps Series training video addresses operational amplifier input and output limitations. In this video we'll discuss op amp common-mode input voltage, input and output voltage swing limitations, and show how to determine the source of circuit errors caused by these limitations.

This is the second video in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier input and output limitations. In this video lab will walk through detailed calculations, SPICE simulations, and real-world measurements that greatly help to reinforce the concepts established in the op amp input and output limitations lecture.

This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps Series training video discusses op amp input and output limitations, part 2. In this video, we'll discuss the details of several factors inside an amplifier which cause common-mode, or input voltage range, limitations, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different op amp input topologies.

This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps Series training video discusses op amp input and output limitations, part 3. In this video, we'll discuss the details of output swing limitations, including the differences between bipolar and CMOS output stages, as well as the effects of output loading and temperature. Finally, we'll introduce the concept of short-circuit output protection.

**How hot is too hot? Does my circuit need a heat sink?**

This series discusses the relationship between power dissipation and temperature in op amps and shows how to calculate an amplifier's junction temperature under a variety of operating conditions using its thermal model. Absolute maximum ratings and internal thermal protection schemes are also introduced.

This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps Series training video addresses relationship between power and temperature in operational amplifiers. In this video, we'll discuss the power dissipation of amplifiers at DC and AC, describe the thermal model of an amplifier and use it to calculate the amplifier's junction temperature, and describe the absolute maximum temperature ratings of the amplifier as well as its internal thermal protection schemes.

**Did you know when calculating op amp bandwith you should always use the non-inverting gain? Do you know why bandwidth impacts Iq?**

In addition to answering those questions, we will show you nearly everything you ever wanted to know about op amp bandwidth including:

- Learn how Aol, loop gain, and 1/beta are used on bode plots to predict amplifier performance over frequency.
- Derive equations for the locations of poles and zeros using resistors, capacitors, and amplifier frequency limitations.
- Practice techniques for plotting poles and zeros on bode plots, and cover graphical and mathematical computations for closed loop bandwidth.
- Study how the time domain is related to the frequency domain using bode plots and scope results.
- Understand the relationship between bandwidth and Iq by using simplified models of the amplifier's internal circuits.

This video series covers op amp bandwidth theory, then applies it to a hands-on lab which includes TINA-TI circuit simulations and experimentation using a real circuit with test equipment.

This is the first of five videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier bandwidth. In this training, we'll discuss gain and how it's represented linearly and in decibels. Poles, zeros, bode plots, cutoff frequency, and the definition of bandwidth will also be discussed. Finally, TINA-TI will be used to correlate bandwidth simulation results with our theoretical calculations.

This is the second of five videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier bandwidth. In this training, we'll discuss open and closed loop gain, gain bandwidth product, and quiescent current vs. bandwidth. We will also simulate the bandwidth of a circuit and show that it correlates to our calculated results.

This is the third of five videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier bandwidth. In this training, we discuss why you should always use the non-inverting gain to calculate bandwidth and secondary effects (namely high-frequency pole location) on bandwidth.

This is the third of five videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier bandwidth. In this training, we'll cover 5 bandwidth related topics:

- A deeper look at how the slope of the Aol curve affects gain bandwidth.
- How an op amps input capacitance can limit the bandwidth.
- How to calculate the practical gain verses frequency for amplifier circuits.
- How to limit the bandwidth of a circuit on purpose using a feedback capacitor.
- How slew rate can affect the response over frequency.

This is the fifth of five videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier bandwidth. In this training lab we will walk through detailed calculations, SPICE simulations, and real-world measurements that greatly help to reinforce the concepts established in the op amp bandwidth video series.

**True or False? A large and rapid voltage change in an op amp's output is always limited by the slew rate of the device.**

If you think the answer is true, or you have seen output slew behavior you could not explain, this session is for you! We will provide an explanation of large and small signal analysis, slew boost, slew rate over temperature, slew rate vs. full power bandwidth, and the relationship of Vos and slew rate. In addition, an inside the op amp view of the cause of slew rate limit is presented.

This video series covers op amp slew rate theory, then applies it to a hands-on lab which includes TINA-TI circuit simulations and experimentation using a real circuit with test equipment.

This is the first of four videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier slew rate. In this training, we discuss the theory behind slew rate and compare the slew rate and current consumption of different TI amplifiers.

This is the second of four videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier slew rate. In this training, wediscuss the body effect's impact on slew rate, take a look at settling time, discuss the differences between an amplifier's small-signal vs. large-signal step response, and relate small-signal step response to stability.

This is the third of four videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier slew rate. In this training, we take a deeper look at the transition from small signal to large signal output response. We'll also look at how gain impacts small signal and large signal output response. Finally, we will introduce the concept of op amp overload recovery.

This is the fourth of four videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier slew rate. This training is a lab which will walk you through detailed calculations, SPICE simulations, and real-world measurements that greatly help to reinforce the concepts established in the op amp slew rate video series.

**Rejection can be a good thing, especially in the case of common mode or power supply voltage errors.**

This video series discusses how changing the common mode voltage or power supply voltage on an op amp can introduce errors at both AC and DC, and how those errors are mitigated by the op amp's built-in common mode rejection and power supply rejection.

This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps Series training video discusses how changing the common mode voltage on op amps introduces a common mode rejection error at both AC and DC. Additional topics include how changing the input voltage introduces open loop gain errors and methods for separating the common mode and open loop gain errors.

This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps Series training video discusses how changing the power supply voltage on op amps can introduce a power supply rejection error at both AC and DC. It also discusses how changing the power supply voltage can introduce a common mode voltage error.

**Did you know that a standard resistor component sitting upon your desk doing "nothing" is actually generating noise?**

Understanding noise in a real-world circuit is critical to achieving your overall system noise performance goal, but noise calculations are complicated and often require long hand calculations. After viewing this series and completing the associated exercises, you will be an op amp noise expert! You will be able to quickly calculate the noise of your circuit through five "rules of thumb" that drastically reduce the complexity of noise calculations. We will also show you how to simulate your circuit to validate your hand calculations. What if the op amp does not have a noise model? Don't worry - we'll show you how easy it is to create your own! Finally, we will demonstrate noise test techniques and take real-world noise measurements.

This video series covers op amp noise theory, then applies it to a hands-on lab which includes TINA-TI circuit simulations and experimentation using a real circuit with test equipment.

This is the first of nine videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier noise. The noise videos series will show how to predict op amp noise with calculation and simulation, as well how to accurately measure noise. In this training, we will define intrinsic noise, introduce the different types of noise, and discuss noise spectral density.

This is the second of nine videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier noise. In this training, we continue the noise discussion by going into further detail on the regions of op amp noise and how to convert spectral noise density to RMS noise.

This is the third of nine videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier noise. In this training, continue the noise discussion by doing a full noise calculation for a simple amplifier circuit.

This is the fourth of nine videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier noise. In the previous training we did a comprehensive noise hand calculation for a very simple op amp circuit. In a real-world circuit, these hand calculations can be long and complex. In this training we will provide several rules of thumb which can be used to simplify noise calculations by identifying the dominant source of noise and ignoring noise sources that do not make a significant contribution. Identifying the dominant source of noise will give you insight into how you can quickly and effectively improve your system's noise performance.

This is the fifth of nine videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier noise. In the previous training we learned some rules of thumb that help to simplify noise calculations. In this video we will show how to perform noise simulations using Tina-TI, a free SPICE simulation program.

This is the sixth of nine videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier noise. In the previous training we covered the basics of noise analysis using SPICE. During that video we mentioned that it is important to make sure that the noise model is accurate, and also suggested looking at the net list to check if noise is included in the model. In this video, we show a more comprehensive method for verifying that the noise model is accurate. Furthermore, we show a method for creating our own model if an accurate model does not already exist.

This is the seventh of nine videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier noise. Up to this point in the noise training video series we have learned how to predict amplifier noise output using calculation and simulation. In this training we will cover techniques for measuring noise. There are two common types of test equipment that are used to measure noise: the oscilloscope and the spectrum analyzer. In this video we will discuss the theory of operation of this equipment, as well as some tips and tricks to optimize performance.

This is the eighth of nine videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier noise. In the previous training videos we introduced methods for calculating, simulating, and measuring noise. In this video we will dive a little deeper into the topic of 1/f, or flicker, noise. Specifically, we will discuss the 0.1Hz to 10Hz noise plots that are included in most op amp data sheets. We will cover how these plots are generated and explain their significance, and we'll also discuss the differences between long-term noise measurements in standard amplifiers compared to zero-drift amplifiers.

This is the ninth of nine videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier noise. In this training lab will walk through detailed calculations, SPICE simulations, and real-world measurements that greatly help to reinforce the concepts established in the noise video series.

**Distortion - a linear circuit's worst enemy. Where does it come from and how can it be reduced?**

This video series introduces the sources of distortion in amplifier circuits, both internal to the amplifier and from external components. Design practices which minimize distortion are also given.

This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps Series training video provides an overview of the distortion video series and also introduces and defines the key topics related to op amp distortion. The goal of this series is to understand the distortion sources in op amp circuits and learn methods to minimize distortion.

This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps Series training video discusses distortion sources from the op amp's internal input stage, focusing on the effects of the amplitude of the differential input signal, common mode limitations, and input impedance as a function of common mode voltage.

This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps Series training video focuses on sources of distortion from an op amp's internal output stage, including the effects of different internal topologies as well as output loading and clipping.

This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps Series training video discusses external sources of distortion, such as resistors, capacitors, and power supply impedance.

Did the circuit you designed to create a precision dc output end up as an oscillator?

After attending viewing this series, you should have all of the tools and information to prevent this from happening again! This session covers basic stability theory, applies it to SPICE simulations, and then real-world lab experiments. You will learn the common causes of op amp stability issues as well as common stability compensation techniques and their associated tradeoffs.

This video series covers op amp stability theory and then applies it to a hands-on lab which includes TINA-TI circuit simulations and experimentation using a real circuit with test equipment.

This is the first of seven videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier stability. In this training video we will discuss the common causes of op-amp stability issues as well as how to identify stability issues in the lab using common equipment.

The remaining videos in the series will provide a review of Bode plots, basic stability theory, how to simulate op amp stability in SPICE, and address specific compensation techniques with detailed analysis of the solutions.

Before proceeding with the op amp stability series, the lectures and problem sections for Op-Amp Bandwidth one through three should be completed. The bandwidth series thoroughly discusses several key concepts used in stability theory that will only briefly be reviewed in the stability video series.

This is the second of seven videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier stability. In the previous training, we discussed the types of issues that op amp stability can cause in production systems as well as how to identify issues in the lab.

This video will provide a brief review of Bode plots and basic stability theory using phase margin and rate of closure analysis. It is important to thoroughly understand these concepts before proceeding with the video series. Please be sure you've completed the lectures and problem sections for Op-Amp Bandwidth one through three before proceeding.

This is the third of seven videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier stability. In the previous training, we discussed the type of issues that op amp stability can cause in production systems, how to identify issues in the lab, and a review of Bode plots and stability theory.

This video will explain how to perform open-loop SPICE simulations to obtain the rate of closure and phase margin of op amp circuits . Please be sure you've completed the lectures and problem sections for Op-Amp Bandwidth one through three before proceeding.

This is the fourth of seven videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier stability. In the previous training we focused on understanding and measuring the phase margin and rate of closure of circuits using SPICE.

This video will explain how to perform indirect phase margin measurements in SPICE and on the bench through time domain and ac frequency domain measurements.

This is the fifth of seven videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier stability. In the previous training we discussed the concepts involved in basic stability theory, as well as how to test and simulate for stability issues in SPICE and on the bench. This video will discuss why capacitive loads cause stability issues and will present the first capacitive load compensation technique using an isolation resistor.

This is the sixth of seven videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier stability. In this training we discuss the Riso with dual-feedback stability compensation method.

This is the seventh of seven videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier stability. In this training lab will walk through detailed calculations, SPICE simulations, and real-world measurements that greatly help to reinforce the concepts established in the stability video series.

**ZAP! Is your circuit protected against the thousands of volts which could be on your finger tips?**

This series explains how electrostatic discharge, or ESD, can damage semiconductor components and what kind of internal protection circuitry is present in these devices.

This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps Series training video addresses electrostatic discharge, or ESD. In this video we'll explain how ESD can damage semiconductor components. We will also give detail on internal ESD protection circuits that are included in semiconductor devices. Finally, we will explain how ESD performance is characterized so that the robustness of the device is understood.

**Oops, what's that smell: why did the "smoke test" fail?**

This series covers the causes of electrical overstress and introduce several methods that can be used to improve and test circuit robustness against electrical overstress. All of the examples in this series show op-amp circuits, but the methods used could be applied to other components as well.

This is the first of four videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier electrical overstress (EOS). In this training, we discuss the causes of electrical overstress and introduce several methods that can be used to improve circuit robustness against electrical overstress. All of the examples in this video show op-amp circuits, but the methods used could be applied to other devices as well. Follow up videos will give additional details showing how to select component values as well as test methods used to confirm electrical overstress robustness.

This is the second of four videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier electrical overstress (EOS). In this training, we'll discuss more devices which are used for EOS protection, such as bidirectional TVS diodes, ferrite beads, and RC filters. We'll also discuss how the internal input protection and ESD structures of op amps behave during EOS events.

This is the third of four videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier electrical overstress (EOS). In this training, we'll show how to select components for EOS protection. We will use the op-amp data sheet absolute maximum specifications and application circuit operating conditions to select the appropriate TVS diode and current-limiting resistors.

This is the fourth of four videos in the TI Precision Labs – Op Amps curriculum that addresses operational amplifier electrical overstress (EOS). In this training, we will cover how a device is damaged by the most common types of harmful electrical transients, and the standard tests which are used to determine a product's robustness against these transients.

**Did you know that distortion can be impacted multiplexer on-resistance flatness? Do you know how input signal settling is impacted by multiplexer on-capacitance?**

In addition to answering those questions, we will show you nearly everything you ever wanted to know about the ac and dc characteristics of multiplexers:

- Learn how MUX on-resistance affects gain and non-linearity when used with amplifier circuits.
- Use simulation to see how the settling behavior of multiplexers is affected by MUX on capacitance.
- Study how leakage current can impact the offset error and how source impedance impacts this problem.
- Understand how charge injection can introduce errors, and how this is impacted by the size of the load capacitance.

This video series covers multiplexer ac and dc specifications, and reinforces this theory with detailed problems and TINA-TI circuit simulations.

This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps training video provides an overview of the on-resistance and on-capacitance parameters of multiplexers. It explains how on-resistance can cause gain error and non-linearity, as well as how on-capacitance can affect settling behavior of multiplexers.

This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps training video provides an overview of leakage current and charge injection. It explains how leakage current can cause offset errors in high input impedance data acquisition systems and how charge injection introduces output voltage error when multiplexer switches are turned on or off.

This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps training video provides an overview of multiplexer bandwidth, channel-to-channel crosstalk, off-isolation, and THD+Noise specifications. It first explains how these parameters are defined and measured, and then it explores how device-related factors can affect these parameters and limit multiplexer performance.

This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps training video provides an overview of multiplexer electrical overstress conditions. The goal of this series is to understand what causes electrical overstress damage as well as some methods for protecting against the damage using external components. The multiplexer highlighted in this video series is the MUX36S08.

**What is a current-feedback amplifier, and when is it the best choice for your system design?**

In this two-part series, you will learn the main advantages of current-feedback amplifiers, namely:

- Bandwidth independent of closed-loop gain, and
- Very high slew rates

You will learn how to perform loop-gain analysis, also known as stability analysis, on a current-feedback amplifier and compare it to the loop-gain analysis technique for a voltage-feedback amplifier. Finally, you'll receive a comprehensive summary of these two amplifier types, which will enable you to select the best amplifier for your end-application.

This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps training video will teach you about the architecture of a current-feedback amplifier and explain how it differs from the more common voltage-feedback amplifier. You will learn how to perform loop-gain analysis, also known as stability analysis, on a current-feedback amplifier in comparison to loop-gain analysis for a voltage-feedback amplifier. This training also explores the gain bandwidth independence of a current-feedback amplifier, which is one of the two main advantages of a current-feedback amplifier over a voltage-feedback amplifier.

This TI Precision Labs - Op Amps training video provides a detailed analysis of the internal transistor structure of a current-feedback amplifier to explain why current-feedback amplifiers are able to achieve very high slew-rates. We'll also explore the noise and input bias current of a current-feedback amplifier. Finally, we'll compare current- and voltage-feedback amplifiers, examining the strengths and weaknesses of each and how to decide which is the most appropriate for your system design.