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Selection and Solution Guides

Application Notes

Digital Motor Control:
C2000 32-bit Real-time Controllers

Software Concept | DMC Systems | System Considerations | Device Features

The C2000 platform of real-time controllers has been the industry leader in digital motor control since the inception of the TMS320F24x generation in 1996. In 2002 we debuted the F281x series based on the C28x DSP engine, becoming the first 32-bit architecture specifically built for high performance, math intensive power electronics control. Based on the C28x we have created a family of code compatible devices to meet application needs across performance, price, pin-out, and peripherals.

C2000 MCUs are used in a variety of three phase motor applications, including; AC Servo Drives, precision motion controls, electronic power steering, HVAC compressors and blowers, industrial pumps, and appliances such as washing machines and refrigerator compressors.

Customers using C2000 have enjoyed success because of C2000's:

  • Best in class capability to perform the precision calculations for sensorless operation and field oriented control (FOC)
  • Motor Control Library of fundamental software routines, with accompanying theory, documentation, and system examples
  • High speed, high precision on-chip analog to digital convertors and easy support for even higher speed or precision external ADCs
  • Feature-rich PWM generators and fault detection to support any system power topology
  • Graphical simulation, system development, and auto-code generation tools available from partners

C2000 Software Concept for Motor Control

  • Highest precision & most numerically accurate
  • Modular libraries (C source) for easiest re-use and customization
  • Removal of fixed point scaling and saturation burden
  • Easiest to tune for your custom motor
  • Documentation: theory, software, system, BOM, schematics

Modular building blocks
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  • Library (source code provided) of fundamental software blocks for motor control
    • Transforms & Estimators: Clarke, Parke, Sliding Mode Observer, Phase Voltage Calculator, Flux & Speed Calculators and Estimators, Resolver Calculator
    • Control: Signal Generation, PID, BEMF Commutation, Space Vector Generators
    • Peripheral Drivers: For different modes and topologies - ADC, PWM, Encoders, Sensor Captures
  • Modular structures or macros with variable inputs and variable outputs
  • At initialization all variables are defined and outputs of one block are set as inputs to the next
  • At run-time the structures or macro functions are called
  • Complete documentation – including mathematical and DMC theory – is provided for every module

DMC Systems: Connect the Blocks – Incrementally

Modular building blocks
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Using the DMC Library modules, we build up complete motor control system examples. These system examples have been created across different motor types, control techniques, and feedback methods and most have an electrically isolated hardware platform for verification.

The most important feature of the systems is they all use an Incremental Build approach, which allows an incremental section of code to be built so that the developer can verify each section of their application one step at a time. For example, in the Sensorless PMSM FOC example above the following incremental builds are built into the software.

  • Build Level 1: Using a dummy signal, verify Inverse Park, Space Vector Generation, and 3-ph PWM driver is producing the correct PWM waveforms
  • Build Level 2: Hook up the power stage, verify ADC conversion, Phase Voltage calculation, Clarke and Park transforms
  • Build Level 3: Closed loop PID current control verification
  • Build Level 4: Sliding Mode Observer and Speed Estimator verification
  • Build Level 5: Closed loop PID speed control

All systems come with complete working software, step-by –step user's guide, copious documentation, screenshots, and hardware hook-up.

These white papers include information on designing high performance drives and the motor control methodology for C2000 real-time controllers.

Getting Started with High Voltage Motor Control + PFC Kit

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C2000™ High Voltage Motor Control and PFC Developer's Kit

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controlSUITE™ Overview

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High Voltage Motor Control and PFT Developer's Kit

High Voltage Motor Control and PFC Developer's Kit

1.5KW digital motor control combined with 700W power factor correction using a single Piccolo MCU. Compatible with ACI, PMSM, and BLDC motors, includes JTAG emulation.

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FRC 2010 Crown Supplier

TI Inspires Next Generation of Engineers as Crown Supplier of the International FIRST Robotics Competition.

Digital Motor Control Library

1x Series 0x Series Piccolo Series Delfino Series
DMC Library Fundamental DMC Building Blocks and Peripheral Drivers SPRC080 SPRC215 controlSUITE controlSUITE

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DMC Systems: Piccolo & Delfino

Motor Type Control Technique
Piccolo Low Voltage Dual Axis + PFC Piccolo High Voltage Single Axis + PFC Delfino High Voltage Single Axis + PFC Piccolo Multi-Motor Kit Piccolo Multi-Motor Kit
Brushless DC Trapezoidal Sensored (controlSUITE 1Q11) controlSUITE controlSUITE 1Q11
Trapezoidal Sensorless (controlSUITE 1Q11) controlSUITE controlSUITE 1Q11
Sinusoidal Sensored SPRC922 controlSUITE (see PMSM) controlSUITE 1Q11
Sinusoidal Sensorless SPRC922 or
controlSUITE (see PMSM) controlSUITE 1Q11
Permanent Magnet FOC Sensored controlSUITE controlSUITE controlSUITE controlSUITE 1Q11
FOC Sensorless controlSUITE controlSUITE controlSUITE controlSUITE 1Q11
FOC Servo Encoder controlSUITE 1Q11
AC Induction V/f Tach/Encoder controlSUITE
FOC Sensored controlSUITE controlSUITE
FOC Sensorless controlSUITE controlSUITE
Stepper Stepper controlSUITE
Brushed DC Servo controlSUITE

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DMC Systems: Legacy Fixed-Point Series

Motor Type Uses Control Technique Control Type Feedback Software Hardware
        Position Current 1x Series 0x Series Update Freq Low Voltage High Voltage
AC Induction 3PH Fixed or Variable High SpeedControl, Industrial Drives, Compressors, Pumps Scalar - V/Hz SVPWM Speed Control Tachometer NONE SPRC130 SPRC194 20 KHz DMC1500 + eZdsp
FOC - Vector SVPWM Speed & Torque Control Tachometer 2PH Current SPRC077 SPRC207 20 KHz DMC1500 + eZdsp
FOC - Vector SVPWM Speed & Torque Control Sensorless Flux + Speed Estimator 2PH Current SPRC078 SPRC195 20 KHz DMC1500 + eZdsp
Brushless DC 3PH Variable Speed Control, Some Position Control, Fans, Compressors, Pumps, Throttles Trapezoidal Speed Control Hall Effect NONE SPRC175 SPRC213 20 KHz DMC550 + eZdsp DMC1500 + eZdsp
Trapezoidal Speed Control Sensorless BEMF DC Bus Single Shunt SPRC176 SPRC196 20 KHz DMC550 + eZdsp DMC1500 + eZdsp
Permanent Magnet 3PH Precision Position, High Torque Speed Control, Traction, Steering, Direct Drive, Robotics FOC - Vector SVPWM Speed & Torque Control Encoder 2PH Current SPRC129 SPRC210 20 KHz DMC550 + eZdsp DMC1500 + eZdsp
FOC - Vector SVPWM Position Control Encoder 2PH Current SPRC179 SPRC212 20 KHz DMC550 + eZdsp DMC1500 + eZdsp
FOC - Vector SVPWM Speed & Torque Control Sensorless SMO Position Estimator 2PH Current SPRC128 SPRC197 20 KHz DMC550 + eZdsp DMC1500 + eZdsp
FOC - Vector SVPWM Speed & Torque Control Resolver 2PH Current SPRC178 SPRC211 20 KHz DMC1500 + eZdsp
Stepper Position & Low Torque Speed Control Microstepping Bipolar Position Control Sensorless Discrete Angle Estimator 2PH Current SPRAAU7 10 KHz
Brushed DC Low End Speed Control Direct Drive H Bridge Speed & Position Encoder NONE SPRC177 SPRC214 40 KHz

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IQMath: Virtual Floating Point

IQMath is a library and compiler intrinsic for the C28x generation that allows you to select your range (and hence your resolution) by choosing which bits of your binary represented number are integer (I) and which are the quotient (Q). It also allows you to write C functions in floating point format instead of dealing with fixed point scaling, and the compiler takes care of the rest.

  • Start-up, tuning, and debug effort are reduced
    • Change numerical range on the fly, global or local
    • Tune for best resolution and dynamic range
    • Remove quantization effects
    • Reduce scaling and saturation burden
    • Better integration with simulation and code gen tools
    • Single source set to move between fixed and floating point processors
    • Easy re-use and re-tuning for new systems

Real-Time Debug

  • Implemented in silicon, not by a software debug monitor
  • No CPU cycles required
  • RTDX always available, real-time debug on customer returns
  • Halt in non-critical code for debug while time-critical interrupts continue to be serviced
  • Access memory and registers without stopping the processor

System Considerations

The latest Piccolo family of devices includes the latest advances with the following goal in mind:

To Lower System Cost and Increase System Reliability:

  • On-chip voltage supervisor with POR/BOR eliminates external supervisor and has in built-in features to eliminate start-up glitches on all PWM pins
  • Three Tier Clock Protection for IEC-60730
    • Two internal and optional external oscillators
    • Two watchdogs and clock fail detection circuitry automatically switches to back-up OSC
    • If both internal fail device automatically goes into limp mode with graceful shutdown
  • GPIOs include internal digital filter which reduce noise and saves external system cost

In most countries outside of the United States we also see regulatory bodies mandating inclusion of Power Factor Correction (PFC) into most new white goods, and we expect this to spread to other industries.

  • Problem
    • A 3-phase inverter and motor act as a non-linear load and draw harmonic currents from the provider's line. These harmonics result in losses and distortions.
  • Solution
    • PFC guarantees the current waveform drawn follows the voltage waveform of the line and also regulates the output DC voltage to a constant value regardless of any changes in the load or the input conditions.
  • Analog vs. Digital PFC:
    • Analog or passive implementations of PFC are locked into a single mode and have a limited ability to react to changes in operating conditions.
    • Active or digitally controlled PFC, in contrast, can act on and adapt to changes in operating conditions and it can be more precise and eliminate any phase shift between voltage and current, increasing efficiency.
    • The flexibility of digital PFC also enables developers to employ more complex PFC topologies than is possible with passive implementations.
  • C2000 devices have the processing headroom and high resolution ADCs and PWMs to implement PFC with sensorless FOC control (and dual axis FOC) even with our lowest cost Piccolo MCUs
  • Example hardware and software are included in all Piccolo and Delfino solutions.

Graphical Simulation and Code Development

Both the Mathworks Embedded Target and Visual Solutions VisSim support graphical motor control development tools that target C2000 MCUs (and interface seamlessly to existing DMC hardware). These tools offer:

  • Block support for the TI DMC Library and other TI device, math, and peripheral libraries
  • Simulation, modeling, and validation of complete DMC systems
  • Auto-tuning and Co-efficient finders
  • Code generation and target deployment
  • Direct interface to TI's Integrated Development Environment and hardware development tools

C2000 Device Features

  Fixed-Point Delfino Piccolo
C2000 series F281x F280x F2823x F2833x C2834x F2802x F2803x
Mass Production 2003 2005 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010
C28x CPU Fixed Fixed Fixed Float Float Fixed Fixed + CLA opt
MHz 150 60 -100 100 - 150 100 - 150 200 - 300 40 - 60 60
PINS 128 - 179 100 176 - 179 176 - 179 176 - 256 38 - 56 64 - 80
Flash (KB) 128 - 256 32 - 256 128 - 512 128 - 512 0 16 - 64 32 - 128
RAM (KB) 36 12 - 36 52 - 68 52 - 68 196 - 516 4 - 12 12 - 20
Budgetary Pricing $13 - $15 $3 - $13 $13 - $14 $14 - $16 $9 - $16 $1.85 - $3 $3 - $4.50

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DSP performance within a
Microcontroller architecture

  • 40-300MHz C28x CPU
    • Built-in DSP functions
    • Single Cycle 32x32-bit MAC
  • Control Law Accelerator
  • Fixed & Floating Point
  • Embedded Flash

Comprehensive Peripheral Set

  • Best in class ADC performance
  • Flexible high resolution PWMs
  • Advanced Capture, Quadrature Encoder Interfaces

Fine-tuned for real-time control

  • Optimized core
  • Fast interrupts
  • Flexible interrupt system
  • Real-time debugging

Broad portfolio of configurations

  • 40-300 MHz
  • Fixed and Floating-point devices
  • 32-512KB of Flash
  • From sub $2 to $20
  • Software compatibility across C2000 family

Key Features for Motor Control

C28x CPU

The C28x 32-bit DSP is the premier computational engine for Digital Motor Control.

  • Offers the highest precision and fastest throughput for computationally intensive algorithms.
    • DMC Library based sensorless FOC takes ˜12 MIPS
  • Extended performance
    • Delfino family offers single precision floating point unit
    • FPU is an extension of the fixed point core and provides about a 50% cycle improvement in the core DMC algorithms
  • In the Piccolo family we are offering an optional Control Law Accelerator (CLA)
    • CLA is a floating point parallel processing unit that has independent control of the ADCs and PWMs
    • Was designed for very high speed, low latency control loops in digital power applications
    • In process of releasing a CLA DMC Library and System Examples that will allow the core DMC functions to be "black boxed and off-loaded" into the CLA, allowing the C28x CPU extra bandwidth for other system functions

A/D Converter

The ADC on every F28x device has a common ancestry, but has been improved upon in each successive series with more accurate references, better auto-calibration, and DMA support.

  • 12-bit ADC converter with up to 12.5 MSPS throughput
  • Two sample and hold circuits for simultaneous sampling
  • Single or dual bank sequencer with flexible start of conversion and 16 result registers
  • The latest Piccolo family supports ratiometric operation, a more flexible sequencer, adjustable acquisition window, and a just-in-time feature which allows the ADC to pre-call the CPU interrupt to synchronize availability of the converted sample with the CPU

PWM Generation

The ePWM modules provide the industry's most feature-rich and flexible PWM pattern generation.

  • Each ePWM module has an independent shadowed 16-bit time base (count up, down, or up-down) that can produce two duty cycle independent outputs
  • There is an optional rising and falling edge dead-band generator, high frequency chopper, and programmable trip zone
  • The trip zone operates even if the MCU clocks go missing, and allows you to map an external pin to any combination of PWM output states, interrupts, ADC start of conversion, or PWM synchronization signals. The trip can be synchronous or asynchronous, has an off-set window, and can be run in cycle by cycle or one-shot modes
  • Independent ePWM blocks can be synchronized to a common time base or automatically phase delayed
  • Standard PWM resolution is tied to the system clock, but there are also High Resolution PWMs with as accurate as 55ps resolution, and the Piccolo family offers High Resolution precision on both the duty cycle and the period.