C2000 real-time control MCUs – Electric vehicles
C2000 MCUs optimized for electric vehicle design
When it comes to the design and manufacturing of electric vehicles, the goal of auto OEMs is to provide an ownership experience that meets or exceeds ICE-based cars today. The goals include:
- maximizing the drive distance per single charge (efficiency, battery capacity)
- increasing power throughput to deliver faster charging
- increasing power density to reduce the size and weight of modules due to limited space in the vehicle
- integration of power electronic modules to save on cost and space (ex: heatsinks, materials for metal casing)
C2000 electric vehicle solutions
TI offers a broad portfolio of C2000 real-time microcontrollers so that original equipment manufacturers or their suppliers can scale from designing individual power electronic modules to an integrated module that combines together the On-Board Charger (OBC), Bi-directional High Voltage DC-DC, and the High Power Traction Inverter for electric vehicles. The latest released C2000 devices enable developers to meet ISO26262 functional safety standards with an ASIL D Decomposition Architecture
|C2000 device family||Performance ranges||Example applications||ISO26262 Support|
|Piccolo F2802x||40 to 60 MIPS||Single Phase On-board Charger||Quality Managed|
|Piccolo F2803x||60 to 120 MIPS||Quality Managed|
|Piccolo F28004x||100 to 200 MIPS||ASILB (target)|
|Piccolo F2807x||120 to 240 MIPS||ASILB (target)|
|Delfino F2837x||400 to 800 MIPS||ASILB (target)|
Power conversion for electric vehicles
C2000 real-time microcontrollers have an unique architecture with a 32-bit DSP core, advanced PWMs, integrated fast ADCs, and windowed comparators to help OEMs/Tier1s design leading edge topologies to increase efficiency and power density so that EV vehicles can charge the battery faster and fit these power modules in a smaller space.
The Piccolo TMS320F280049 series was designed for advanced 3 phase power topologies often adopted in charging stations. Built-in device features make development of topologies such as a Vienna Rectifier at a lower BOM cost and faster time to market. For example:
- The integrated comparator subsystem (CMPSS) integrates protection for overcurrent and overvoltage without the use of any external devices, thus making the board lower cost and increasing power density.
- An optimized central processing unit (CPU) enables fast execution of the control loop. The on-chip trigonometric math unit (TMU) accelerates trigonometric operations, which imparts additional speed in control-loop execution.
- A software frequency response analyzer (SFRA) and compensation designer ease the tuning of control loops.
As more electric vehicles enter the market, OEMs and Tier 1s will be challenged to provide on-board charging solutions that can support multiple regions with different power grid infrastructures. C2000 offer OEMs and Tier 1s the ability to scale across a wide power range with the same software code base.
With the advent of Wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor devices, such as GaN and SiC, that show superior material properties compared to the Si devices, the C2000 Piccolo™ TMS320F28004x family of solutions is well suited for multiple power topologies for DC/DC (bi-directional) with specific features and software libraries that make development of power electronics with a smaller footprint, at a lower cost and ease of development. C2000 PWMs can significantly improve power density based on WBG by enabling switching frequencies that are >500 kHz.
|Type||Reference Design||Key Device||Key Tool||Software support|
|Isolated DC/DC||Bidirectional 400V-12V DC/DC Converter Reference Design||TMS320F28035||TMDSCNCD28035||controlSUITE|
|Isolated DC/DC||Phase-Shifted Full Bridge DC/DC Power Converter||TMS320F28027||TMDSCNCD28027||controlSUITE|
|Isolated DC/DC||Resonant LLC DC/DC Power Converter||TMS320F280049||TMSCNCD280049C||controlSUITE|
C2000 software simplifies power converter development
powerSUITE is a collection of graphical software tools that enable designers to easily develop and modify their digital power applications. powerSUITE is comprised of three tools which provide an intuitive interface to seamlessly integrate developed code into TI’s CCS IDE:
- The Solution Adapter allows designers to easily modify existing code examples for custom hardware using a simple GUI.
- The Compensation Designer enables developers to create compensators of different styles, providing a method to effortlessly tune control loops.
- The Software Frequency Response Analyzer (SFRA) enables developers to quickly measure the frequency response of digital power converter control loops implemented on a C2000 MCU.
Original powerSUITE solutions are included as part of controlSUITE and new releases are included as part of DigitalPower SDK.
Motor control for electric vehicles
C2000 plays a significant role in maximizing motor performance and efficiency at full torque in both high and low speed conditions. These benefits apply to traction inverters, EV high voltage (HV) compressors, and auxiliary motors.
In order to achieve high performance while maximizing driving range and minimizing energy loss, more attention is needed on selecting the right motor and control techniques. TI’s C2000 real-time microcontrollers have been the MCU of choice for many motor control applications in automotive. Through decades of experience in the automotive industry, C2000 has developed a number of advanced motor algorithms. A few example include:
- Fast Current Loop control that can help with reducing motor space, weight, and cost while increasing efficiency and performance
- Observer algorithms to enable high speed at full torque (>20000RPM).
- Motor Fault Diagnostics Algorithm to detect and respond to motor winding faults.
|Development kits||Key Device||Key Tool||Software support|
|C2000 DesignDRIVE Development Kit for Industrial Motor Control||TMDSCNCD28379D||Encoder or Resolver FOC controlSUITE™|
|Fast Current Loop DesignDRIVE software||TMS320F28379D||LAUNCHXL-F28379D||controlSUITE|
|C2000 Resolver to Digital Conversion Kit||TMDSCNCD28035ISO||controlSUITE|
HVAC and Auxiliary motor
InstaSPIN-FOC is a sensorless motor control solution ideal for compressors and auxiliary motors within the vehicle. With motor parameter identification and automatic tuning, even those new to advanced motor control can have high performance control within minutes. InstaSPIN can provide full torque at low speeds (<500rpm) which reduces power usage, increases overall efficiency, and allows for use of smaller, more compact motor designs.
|Reference designs||Key Device||Key Tool||Software support|
|Automotive High Voltage, High Power Motor Driver Reference Design for HVAC Compressor||TMS320F28052F||TMDSCNCD28054MISO||MotorWare|
|Automotive 12V 200W (20A) BLDC Motor Drive Reference Design||TMS320F28027F||LAUNCHXL-F28027F||MotorWare|
Functional safety for EV
C2000 MCUs come with a variety of collaterals that can help you develop functionally safe systems that can comply with a wide range of standards for end products in automotive.