Motor drivers

Actuator drivers – Actuators

TI offers a comprehensive set of drivers that are compatible with various haptic actuator technologies. Vendors listed below offer ERM, LRA, piezo, and solenoid haptic actuators that have been tested to work with TI driver ICs.

Linear Resonant Actuators

LRAs are comprised of a simple magnet attached to a spring that modulates up and down creating its vibrations. LRAs can offer a richer user experience in a lower power solution compared to ERMs.

haptics actuator

Linear Wideband Actuators

Unlike a typical LRA which operates at a single frequency, a wideband actuator is driven with analog waveforms to give high acceleration over a range of frequencies. This delivers a much more natural and realistic haptic experience.

haptics actuator

Eccentric Rotating Mass

ERMs are inertial motor-based haptic actuators. This actuator has an off-center weight that rotates, creating omni-directional waves that propagate throughout the device enabling whole device haptics.

Eccentric rotating mass


Piezo actuators bend and stretch when a voltage is applied. The voltage can be applied in a manner that rapidly cycles the piezo actuator between transformed and relaxed state which creates vibrations. Piezo actuators can also be driven to high enough frequencies to produce audible noise.

Piezo beam stack


Solenoids are electromagnetic devices that convert electric energy directly into linear mechanical motion. Solenoid actuators require high current and provide the strongest haptic responses.

solenoid motor drive diagram

Actuators comparison chart

Motion type Linear Linear Rotation Linear Linear
High definition haptics No Yes No Yes No
System Power Lowest Low High Low Highest
Localized haptics No No No Yes No
Whole-device haptics Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Drive voltage 2V (RMS) 2V (RMS) 2.5V-5.5V (peak) 50V-200V (peak-to-peak) 20V-50V (peak)
Response time 20-30 ms <10 ms 40-80 ms <1 ms 5-10 ms
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