Manufacturing terminology

This page is intended to provide information on select manufacturing terms.  For more details on TI’s manufacturing operations, please visit our manufacturing page.

Our internal manufacturing operations consists of many manufacturing sites worldwide. Each manufacturing site includes at least one wafer fab and/or assembly and test factory. 


Wafer fabrication

The semiconductor chip manufacturing process starts with wafer fabrication (fab). Fab locations transform a circular piece of ultra-pure silicon, called silicon wafers, into individual chips through thousands of process machines, lasers, ultra-precision optics and advanced robotics. 


Assembly, test and packaging

After the fab process, wafers go to assembly and test factories where chips are assembled into finished semiconductor components, tested to the appropriate specifications, and readied for shipment to our customers. Our internal manufacturing operations also include wafer bump and probe facilities, which are frequently co-located within our existing factories. 


Manufacturing capability

Owning and controlling our manufacturing operations allow us to provide geopolitically dependable capacity to our customers around the world. With our internal manufacturing capabilities, we’re able to source more than 85% of our manufacturing flows and technologies at more than one site, quickly bring factories online and streamline product qualifications – all while adhering to strict quality specifications. Additionally, our robust business continuity processes helps us limit the interruption of production due to unexpected events.

Additional resources

Terminology and abbreviations

When buying semiconductors from TI, you will receive information about the location where your product was manufactured and assembled. In most cases, you will find related information that includes the state/province along with the country/region on Please see below for a list of commonly used abbreviations and terminology.


Abbrevation on invoice/packaging
ACO Assembly country origin
Location where assembly occurs.
ASO Assembly site origin
Location of assembly facility.
CCO Chip country origin
Location where fabrication occurs.
COO Country of origin
For general import purposes, COO is the country/region where an item was produced and/or underwent substantial transformation. COO definition may vary for tariff and tax purposes. 
CSO Chip site origin
Location of the fabrication facility.
PDC Product Distribution Center
Location of the warehouse/storage from where the items are shipped.