Shunt-based, current-measurement solutions are widely used to monitor load currents. Low-side, current-shunt measurements are independent of the bus voltage because the shunt common-mode voltage is near ground. Figure 44 shows an example circuit for a bidirectional, low-side, current-shunt measurement system. The load current is determined by measuring the voltage across the shunt resistor that is amplified and level-shifted by a low-drift operational amplifier, OPA333. The OPA333 output voltage is digitized with ADS1115 and sent to the microcontroller using the I2C interface. This circuit is capable of measuring bidirectional currents flowing through the shunt resistor with great accuracy and precision.