Refer to the PDF data sheet for device specific package drawings
A single track of slots patterns the periphery of an incremental encoder disk, as shown in Figure 6-2. These slots create an alternating pattern of dark and light lines. The disk count is defined as the number of dark/light line pairs that occur per revolution (lines per revolution). As a rule, a second track is added to generate a signal that occurs once per revolution (index signal: QEPI), which can be used to indicate an absolute position. Encoder manufacturers identify the index pulse using different terms such as index, marker, home position, and zero reference.
To derive direction information, the lines on the disk are read out by two different photo-elements that "look" at the disk pattern with a mechanical shift of 1/4 the pitch of a line pair between them. This shift is realized with a reticle or mask that restricts the view of the photo-element to the desired part of the disk lines. As the disk rotates, the two photo-elements generate signals that are shifted 90 degrees out of phase from each other. These are commonly called the quadrature QEPA and QEPB signals. The clockwise direction for most encoders is defined as the QEPA channel going positive before the QEPB channel.
The encoder wheel typically makes one revolution for every revolution of the motor or the wheel may be at a geared rotation ratio with respect to the motor. Therefore, the frequency of the digital signal coming from the QEPA and QEPB outputs varies proportionally with the velocity of the motor. For example, a 2000-line encoder directly coupled to a motor running at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) results in a frequency of 166.6 KHz, so by measuring the frequency of either the QEPA or QEPB output, the processor can determine the velocity of the motor.
For more information, see section Enhanced Quadrature Encoder Pulse (eQEP) Module in chapter Pulse-Width Modulation Subsystem of the device TRM.