SNVSBZ3 June   2021 LM5168-Q1


  1. Features
  2. Applications
  3. Description
  4. Revision History
  5. Device Comparison Table
  6. Pin Configuration and Functions
  7. Specifications
    1. 7.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings
    2. 7.2 ESD Ratings
    3. 7.3 Recommended Operating Conditions
    4. 7.4 Thermal Information
    5. 7.5 Electrical Characteristics
  8. Detailed Description
    1. 8.1 Overview
    2. 8.2 Functional Block Diagram
    3. 8.3 Feature Description
      1. 8.3.1  Control Architecture
      2. 8.3.2  Internal VCC Regulator and Bootstrap Capacitor
      3. 8.3.3  Internal Soft Start
      4. 8.3.4  On-Time Generator
      5. 8.3.5  Current Limit
      6. 8.3.6  N-Channel Buck Switch and Driver
      7. 8.3.7  Synchronous Rectifier
      8. 8.3.8  Enable/Undervoltage Lockout (EN/UVLO)
      9. 8.3.9  Power Good (PGOOD)
      10. 8.3.10 Thermal Protection
    4. 8.4 Device Functional Modes
      1. 8.4.1 Shutdown Mode
      2. 8.4.2 Active Mode
      3. 8.4.3 Sleep Mode
  9. Application and Implementation
    1. 9.1 Application Information
    2. 9.2 Typical Application
      1. 9.2.1 Design Requirements
      2. 9.2.2 Detailed Design Procedure
        1.  Switching Frequency (RT)
        2.  Transformer Selection
        3.  Output Capacitor Selection
        4.  Secondary Output Diode
        5.  Regulation Comparator
        6.  Input Capacitor
        7.  Type-3 Ripple Network
        8.  Minimum Secondary Output Load
        9.  Example Design Summary
        10. Thermal Considerations
      3. 9.2.3 Application Curves
  10. 10Power Supply Recommendations
  11. 11Layout
    1. 11.1 Layout Guidelines
      1. 11.1.1 Compact PCB Layout for EMI Reduction
      2. 11.1.2 Feedback Resistors
    2. 11.2 Layout Example
  12. 12Device and Documentation Support
    1. 12.1 Device Support
      1. 12.1.1 Third-Party Products Disclaimer
    2. 12.2 Documentation Support
      1. 12.2.1 Related Documentation
    3. 12.3 Receiving Notification of Documentation Updates
    4. 12.4 Support Resources
    5. 12.5 Trademarks
    6. 12.6 Electrostatic Discharge Caution
    7. 12.7 Glossary
  13. 13Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information

Package Options

Mechanical Data (Package|Pins)
Thermal pad, mechanical data (Package|Pins)
Orderable Information

Thermal Considerations

As with any power conversion device, the LM516x-Q1 dissipates internal power while operating. The effect of this power dissipation is to raise the internal temperature of the converter above ambient. The internal die temperature (TJ) is a function of the following:

  • Ambient temperature
  • Power loss
  • Effective thermal resistance, RθJA, of the device
  • PCB combination

The maximum internal die temperature for the LM516x-Q1 must be limited to 150°C. This establishes a limit on the maximum device power dissipation and, therefore, the load current. Equation 32 shows the relationships between the important parameters. It is easy to see that larger ambient temperatures (TA) and larger values of RθJA reduce the maximum available output current. The converter efficiency can be estimated by using the curves provided in this data sheet. Note that these curves include the power loss in the inductor. If the desired operating conditions cannot be found in one of the curves, then interpolation can be used to estimate the efficiency. Alternatively, the EVM can be adjusted to match the desired application requirements and the efficiency can be measured directly. The correct value of RθJA is more difficult to estimate. As stated in the Semiconductor and IC Package Thermal Metrics Application Report, the value of RθJA given in the Thermal Information is not valid for design purposes and must not be used to estimate the thermal performance of the application. The values reported in that table were measured under a specific set of conditions that are rarely obtained in an actual application. The data given for RθJC(bott) and ΨJT can be useful when determining thermal performance. See the Semiconductor and IC Package Thermal Metrics Application Report for more information and the resources given at the end of this section.

Equation 32. GUID-F61A2C5D-0A01-45B4-82A1-5051FF2999D7-low.gif


  • η = efficiency

The effective RθJA is a critical parameter and depends on many factors such as the following:

  • Power dissipation
  • Air temperature/flow
  • PCB area
  • Copper heat-sink area
  • Number of thermal vias under the package
  • Adjacent component placement

The LM516x-Q1 features a die attach paddle, or "thermal pad" (EP), to provide a place to solder down to the PCB heat-sinking copper. This provides a good heat conduction path from the regulator junction to the heat sink and must be properly soldered to the PCB heat sink copper. Typical examples of RΘJA can be found in Figure 9-2. The copper area given in the graph is for each layer. The top and bottom layers are 2-oz. copper each, while the inner layers are 1 oz. Remember that the data given in this graph is for illustration purposes only, and the actual performance in any given application depends on all of the previously mentioned factors.

Figure 9-2 Typical RΘJA Versus Copper Area

To continue with the design example, assume that the user has an ambient temperature of 70ºC and wishes to estimate the required copper area to keep the device junction temperature below 125ºC, at full load. From the curves in Section 9.2.3, an efficiency of about 81% was found at an input voltage of 24 V and 0.3 A from both primary and secondary outputs. The efficiency will be somewhat less at high junction temperatures, so an efficiency of approximately 79% is assumed. This gives a total loss of about 1.59 W. Subtract out the copper loss of the inductor, and arrive at a device dissipation of about 1.37 W. With this information, the user can calculate the required RθJA of about 40ºC/W. Based on Figure 9-2 the required copper area is about 18 cm2 to 20 cm2, for a two-layer PCB. For details of this calculation, please see the PCB Thermal Design Tips for Automotive DC/DC Converters Application Note.

The following resources can be used as a guide to optimal thermal PCB design and estimating RθJA for a given application environment: