There is no limitation for small duty cycles, since even at very low duty cycles the switching frequency is reduced as needed to always ensure a proper regulation.
If the output voltage level comes close to the input voltage, the device enters 100% mode. While the high-side switch is constantly turned on, the low-side switch is switched off. The difference between VIN and VOUT is determined by the voltage drop across the high-side FET and the dc resistance of the inductor. The minimum VIN that is needed to maintain a specific VOUT value is estimated as: