Shunt-based, current-measurement solutions are widely used to monitor load currents. Low-side, current-shunt measurements are independent of the bus voltage because the shunt common-mode voltage is near ground. Figure 29 shows an example circuit for a bidirectional, low-side, current-shunt measurement system. The load current is determined by measuring the voltage across the shunt resistor that is amplified and level-shifted by a low-drift operational amplifier, OPA333-Q1. The OPA333-Q1 output voltage is digitized with ADS1015-Q1 and sent to the microcontroller using the I2C interface. This circuit is capable of measuring bidirectional currents flowing through the shunt resistor with great accuracy and precision.