The TLV600x family of operational amplifiers are general-purpose, low-cost devices that are suitable for a wide range of portable applications. Rail-to-rail input and output swings, low quiescent current, and wide dynamic range make the op amps well-suited for driving sampling analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and other single-supply applications.
The TLV600x series is fully specified and tested from 1.8 V to 5.5 V (±0.9 V to ±2.75 V). Parameters that vary with supply voltage are illustrated in the Typical Characteristics section.
The input common-mode voltage range of the TLV600x series extends 200 mV beyond the supply rails. This performance is achieved with a complementary input stage: an N-channel input differential pair in parallel with a P-channel differential pair, as shown in the Functional Block Diagram. The N-channel pair is active for input voltages close to the positive rail, typically (V+) – 1.3 V to 200 mV above the positive supply, while the P-channel pair is on for inputs from 200 mV below the negative supply to approximately (V+) – 1.3 V. There is a small transition region, typically (V+) – 1.4 V to (V+) – 1.2 V, in which both pairs are on. This 200-mV transition region may vary up to 300 mV with process variation. Thus, the transition region (both stages on) may range from (V+) – 1.7 V to (V+) – 1.5 V on the low end, up to (V+) – 1.1 V to (V+) – 0.9 V on the high end. Within this transition region, PSRR, CMRR, offset voltage, offset drift, and THD may be degraded compared to device operation outside this region.
Designed as a micro-power, low-noise operational amplifier, the TLV600x delivers a robust output drive capability. A class AB output stage with common-source transistors is used to achieve full rail-to-rail output swing capability. For resistive loads up to 100 kΩ, the output swings typically to within 5 mV of either supply rail regardless of the power-supply voltage applied. Different load conditions change the ability of the amplifier to swing close to the rails, as shown in Figure 11.
CMRR for the TLV600x is specified in several ways so the best match for a given application may be used; see Electrical Characteristics. First, the CMRR of the device in the common-mode range below the transition region [VCM < (V+) – 1.3 V] is given. This specification is the best indicator of the capability of the device when the application requires the use of one of the differential input pairs. Second, the CMRR over the entire common-mode range is specified at (VCM = –0.2 V to 5.7 V). This last value includes the variations seen through the transition region, as shown in Figure 4.
The TLV600x is designed to be used in applications where driving a capacitive load is required. As with all op amps, there may be specific instances where the TLV600x may become unstable. The particular op amp circuit configuration, layout, gain, and output loading are some of the factors to consider when establishing whether or not an amplifier is stable in operation. An op amp in the unity-gain (1-V/V) buffer configuration that drives a capacitive load exhibits a greater tendency to be unstable than an amplifier operated at a higher noise gain. The capacitive load, in conjunction with the op amp output resistance, creates a pole within the feedback loop that degrades the phase margin. The degradation of the phase margin increases as the capacitive loading increases. When operating in the unity-gain configuration, the TLV600x remains stable with a pure capacitive load up to approximately 1 nF. The equivalent series resistance (ESR) of some capacitors (CL greater than 1 μF) is sufficient to alter the phase characteristics in the feedback loop such that the amplifier remains stable. Increasing the amplifier closed-loop gain allows the amplifier to drive increasingly larger capacitance. This increased capability is evident when observing the overshoot response of the amplifier at higher voltage gains.
One technique for increasing the capacitive load drive capability of the amplifier when it operates in a unity-gain configuration is to insert a small resistor, typically 10 Ω to 20 Ω, in series with the output, as shown in Figure 19. This resistor significantly reduces the overshoot and ringing associated with large capacitive loads. One possible problem with this technique is that a voltage divider is created with the added series resistor and any resistor connected in parallel with the capacitive load. The voltage divider introduces a gain error at the output that reduces the output swing.
Operational amplifiers vary with regard to the susceptibility of the device to electromagnetic interference (EMI). If conducted EMI enters the op amp, the dc offset observed at the amplifier output may shift from the nominal value while EMI is present. This shift is a result of signal rectification associated with the internal semiconductor junctions. While all op amp pin functions may be affected by EMI, the signal input pins are likely to be the most susceptible. The TLV600x family incorporates an internal input low-pass filter that reduces the amplifiers response to EMI. Common-mode and differential mode filtering are provided by this filter. The filter is designed for a cutoff frequency of approximately 35 MHz (–3 dB), with a rolloff of 20 dB per decade.
Texas Instruments has developed the ability to accurately measure and quantify the immunity of an operational amplifier over a broad frequency spectrum extending from 10 MHz to 6 GHz. The EMI rejection ratio (EMIRR) metric allows op amps to be directly compared by the EMI immunity. Figure 18 illustrates the results of this testing on the TLV600x family. Detailed information may be found in EMI Rejection Ratio of Operational Amplifiers (SBOA128), available for download from www.ti.com.
The TLV600x have a single functional mode. The devices are powered on as long as the power-supply voltage is between 1.8 V (±0.9 V) and 5.5 V (±2.75 V).
The TLV600x incorporates internal electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection circuits on all pins. In the case of input and output pins, this protection primarily consists of current-steering diodes connected between the input and power-supply pins. The ESD protection diodes provide in-circuit, input overdrive protection, as long as the current is limited to 10 mA, as stated in the Absolute Maximum Ratings table. Figure 20 shows how a series input resistor may be added to the driven input to limit the input current. The added resistor contributes thermal noise at the amplifier input and the value must be kept to a minimum in noise-sensitive applications.