In order for the PCB design to be successful, start with design of the protection and filtering circuitry. Because ESD and EFT transients have a wide frequency bandwidth from approximately 3 MHz to 3 GHz, high frequency layout techniques must be applied during PCB design. On chip IEC ESD protection is good for laboratory and portable equipment but is usually not sufficient for EFT and surge transients occurring in industrial environments. Therefore robust and reliable bus node design requires the use of external transient protection devices at the bus connectors. Placement at the connector also prevents these harsh transient events from propagating further into the PCB and system.
Use VCC and ground planes to provide low inductance. Note: high frequency current follows the path of least inductance and not the path of least resistance.
Design the bus protection components in the direction of the signal path. Do not force the transient current to divert from the signal path to reach the protection device.
An example placement of the Transient Voltage Suppression (TVS) device indicated as D1 (either bi-directional diode or varistor solution) and bus filter capacitors C8 and C9 are shown in .
The bus transient protection and filtering components should be placed as close to the bus connector, J1, as possible. This prevents transients, ESD and noise from penetrating onto the board and disturbing other devices.
Bus termination: Figure 44 shows split termination. This is where the termination is split into two resistors, R7 and R8, with the center or split tap of the termination connected to ground via capacitor C7. Split termination provides common mode filtering for the bus. When termination is placed on the board instead of directly on the bus, care must be taken to ensure the terminating node is not removed from the bus as this will cause signal integrity issues of the bus is not properly terminated on both ends. See the application section for information on power ratings needed for the termination resistor(s).
Bypass and bulk capacitors should be placed as close as possible to the supply pins of transceiver, examples C2, C3 (VCC).
Use at least two vias for VCC and ground connections of bypass capacitors and protection devices to minimize trace and via inductance.
To limit current of digital lines, serial resistors may be used. Examples are R1, R2, R3 and R4.
To filter noise on the digital IO lines, a capacitor may be used close to the input side of the IO as shown by C1 and C4.
Since the internal pull up and pull down biasing of the device is weak for floating pins, an external 1k to 10k ohm pull-up or down resistor should be used to bias the state of the pin more strongly against noise during transient events.
Pin 1: If an open drain host processor is used to drive the D pin of the device an external pull-up resistor between 1k and 10k ohms should be used to drive the recessive input state of the device (R1).
Pin 8: is shown assuming the mode pin, RS, will be used. If the device will only be used in normal mode or slope control mode, R3 is not needed and the pads of C4 could be used for the pull down resistor to GND.
Pin 5 in is shown for the SN65HVD230 and SN65HVD231 devices which have a Vref output voltage reference. If used, this pin should be tied to the common mode point of the split termination. If this feature is not used, the pin can be left floating.
For the SN65HVD232, pins 5 and 8 are no connect (NC) pin. This means that the pins are not internally connected and can be left floating.