SLVS389M September   2002  – September 2015 TPS786


  1. Features
  2. Applications
  3. Description
  4. Revision History
  5. Pin Configuration and Functions
  6. Specifications
    1. 6.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings
    2. 6.2 ESD Ratings
    3. 6.3 Recommended Operating Conditions
    4. 6.4 Thermal Information
    5. 6.5 Electrical Characteristics
    6. 6.6 Typical Characteristics
  7. Detailed Description
    1. 7.1 Overview
    2. 7.2 Functional Block Diagrams
    3. 7.3 Feature Description
      1. 7.3.1 Regulator Protection
    4. 7.4 Device Functional Modes
  8. Application and Implementation
    1. 8.1 Application Information
      1. 8.1.1 Programming the TPS78601 Adjustable LDO Regulator
    2. 8.2 Typical Application
      1. 8.2.1 Design Requirements
      2. 8.2.2 Detailed Design Procedure
        1. External Capacitor Requirements
      3. 8.2.3 Application Curves
  9. Power Supply Recommendations
  10. 10Layout
    1. 10.1 Layout Guidelines
    2. 10.2 Layout Examples
    3. 10.3 Regulator Mounting
    4. 10.4 Power Dissipation
      1. 10.4.1 Estimating Junction Temperature
  11. 11Device and Documentation Support
    1. 11.1 Device Support
      1. 11.1.1 Development Support
        1. Evaluation Modules
        2. Spice Models
      2. 11.1.2 Device Nomenclature
    2. 11.2 Documentation Support
      1. 11.2.1 Related Documentation
    3. 11.3 Community Resources
    4. 11.4 Trademarks
    5. 11.5 Electrostatic Discharge Caution
    6. 11.6 Glossary
  12. 12Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information



10 Layout

10.1 Layout Guidelines

To improve AC measurements like PSRR, output noise, and transient response, TI recommends designing the board with separate ground planes for VIN and VOUT, with each ground plane connected only at the ground pin of the device. In addition, the ground connection for the bypass capacitor should connect directly to the ground pin of the device.

10.2 Layout Examples

TPS786 Layout_ADJ_slvs389.gif Figure 30. Recommended Layout – Adjustable-Voltage Version
TPS786 Layout_Fixed_slvs389.gif Figure 31. Recommended Layout – Fixed-Voltage Version

10.3 Regulator Mounting

The tab of the SOT223-6 package is electrically connected to ground. For best thermal performance, the tab of the surface-mount version should be soldered directly to a circuit-board copper area. Increasing the copper area improves heat dissipation.

Solder pad footprint recommendations for the devices are presented in Application Report SBFA015, Solder Pad Recommendations for Surface-Mount Devices, available from the TI website at

10.4 Power Dissipation

Knowing the device power dissipation and proper sizing of the thermal plane that is connected to the tab or pad is critical to avoiding thermal shutdown and ensuring reliable operation.

Power dissipation of the device depends on input voltage and load conditions and can be calculated using Equation 4:

Equation 4. TPS786 q_pd_bvs064.gif

Power dissipation can be minimized and greater efficiency can be achieved by using the lowest possible input voltage necessary to achieve the required output voltage regulation.

On the SON (DRB) package, the primary conduction path for heat is through the exposed pad to the printed-circuit-board (PCB). The pad can be connected to ground or be left floating; however, it should be attached to an appropriate amount of copper PCB area to ensure the device does not overheat. On both SOT-223 (DCQ) and DDPAK (KTT) packages, the primary conduction path for heat is through the tab to the PCB. That tab should be connected to ground. The maximum junction-to-ambient thermal resistance depends on the maximum ambient temperature, maximum device junction temperature, and power dissipation of the device and can be calculated using Equation 5:

Equation 5. TPS786 q_rth_bvs064.gif

Knowing the maximum RθJA, the minimum amount of PCB copper area needed for appropriate heatsinking can be estimated using Figure 32.

TPS786 ai_theta_ja_lvs351.gif


θJA value at board size of 9in2 (that is, 3in × 3in) is a JEDEC standard.
Figure 32. θJA vs Board Size

Figure 32 shows the variation of θJA as a function of ground plane copper area in the board. It is intended only as a guideline to demonstrate the effects of heat spreading in the ground plane and should not be used to estimate actual thermal performance in real application environments.


When the device is mounted on an application PCB, TI strongly recommends using ΨJT and ΨJB, as explained in the section.

10.4.1 Estimating Junction Temperature

Using the thermal metrics ΨJT and ΨJB, as shown in the Thermal Information table, the junction temperature can be estimated with corresponding formulas (given in Equation 6). For backwards compatibility, an older θJC,Top parameter is listed as well.

Equation 6. TPS786 q_new_metrics_bvs066.gif


  • PD is the power dissipation shown by Equation 5.
  • TT is the temperature at the center-top of the IC package.
  • TB is the PCB temperature measured 1mm away from the IC package on the PCB surface (as Figure 34 shows).


Both TT and TB can be measured on actual application boards using a thermo‐gun (an infrared thermometer).

For more information about measuring TT and TB, see the application note SBVA025, Using New Thermal Metrics, available for download at

By looking at Figure 33, the new thermal metrics (ΨJT and ΨJB) have very little dependency on board size. That is, using ΨJT or ΨJB with Equation 6 is a good way to estimate TJ by simply measuring TT or TB, regardless of the application board size.

TPS786 ai_psi_jt_jb_lvs351.gif Figure 33. ΨJT and ΨJB vs Board Size

For a more detailed discussion of why TI does not recommend using θJC(top) to determine thermal characteristics, see application report Using New Thermal Metrics, SBVA025, available for download at For further information, see application report IC Package Thermal Metrics, SPRA953, also available on the TI website.

TPS786 ai_measuring_point_lvs351.gif
1. TT is measured at the center of both the X- and Y-dimensional axes.
2. TB is measured below the package lead on the PCB surface.
Figure 34. Measuring Points for TT and TB