Information in the following applications sections is not part of the TI component specification, and TI does not warrant its accuracy or completeness. TI’s customers are responsible for determining suitability of components for their purposes. Customers should validate and test their design implementation to confirm system functionality.
The ADS8674 and ADS8678 devices are fully-integrated data acquisition systems based on a 14-bit SAR ADC. The devices include an integrated analog front-end for each input channel and an integrated precision reference with a buffer. As such, this device family does not require any additional external circuits for driving the reference or analog input pins of the ADC.
In modern power grids, accurately measuring the electrical parameters of the various areas of the power grid is extremely critical. This measurement helps determine the operating status and running quality of the grid. Such accurate measurements also help diagnose potential problems with the power network so that these problems can be resolved quickly without having any significant service disruption. The key electrical parameters include amplitude, frequency, and phase, which are important for calculating the power factor, power quality, and other parameters of the power system.
The phase angle of the electrical signal on the power network buses is a special interest to power system engineers. The primary objective for this design is to accurately measure the phase and phase difference between the analog input signals in a multichannel data acquisition system. When multiple input channels are sampled in a sequential manner as in a multiplexed ADC, an additional phase delay is introduced between the channels. Thus, the phase measurements are not accurate. However, this additional phase delay is constant and can be compensated in application software.
The key design requirements are given below:
The application circuit and system diagram for this design is shown in Figure 124. This design includes a complete hardware and software implementation of a multichannel data acquisition system for power automation applications.
This system can be designed using the ADS8678, which is a 14-bit, 500-kSPS, 8-channel, multiplexed input, SAR ADC with integrated precision reference and analog front-end circuitry for each channel. The ADC supports bipolar input ranges up to ±10.24 V with a single 5-V supply and provides minimum latency in data output resulting from the SAR architecture. The integration offered by this device makes the ADS8674 and ADS8678 an ideal selection for such applications, because the integrated signal conditioning helps minimize system components and avoids the need for generating high-voltage supply rails. The overall system-level dc precision (gain and offset errors) and low temperature drift offered by this device helps system designers achieve the desired system accuracy without calibration. In most applications, using passive RC filters or multi-stage filters in front of the ADC is preferred to reduce the noise of the input signal.
The software algorithm implemented in this design uses the discrete fourier transform (DFT) method to calculate and track the input signal frequency, obtain the exact phase angle of the individual signal, calculate the phase difference, and implement phase compensation. The entire algorithm has four steps:
|For a step-by-step design procedure, circuit schematics, bill of materials, PCB files, simulation results, and test results, see Phase Compensated 8-Channel, Multiplexed Data Acquisition System for Power Automation Reference Design (TIDU427).|
This reference design provides a complete solution for a single-supply industrial control analog input module. The design is suitable for process control end equipment, such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs), distributed control systems (DCSs), and data acquisition systems (DAS) modules that must digitize standard industrial current inputs, and bipolar or unipolar input voltage ranges up to ±10 V. In an industrial environment, the analog voltage and current ranges typically include ±2.5 V, ±5 V, ±10 V, 0 V to 5 V, 0 V to 10 V, 4 mA to
20 mA, and 0 mA to 20 mA. This reference design can measure all standard industrial voltage and current inputs. Eight channels are provided on the module, and each channel can be configured as a current or voltage input with software configuration.
The key design requirements are given below:
The application circuit and system diagram for this design is shown in Figure 125.
The module has eight analog input channels, and each channel can be configured as a current or voltage input with software configuration. This design can be implemented using the ADS8678, 14-bit, 8-channel, single-supply SAR ADC with an on-chip PGA and reference. The on-chip PGA provides a high-input impedance (typically 1 MΩ) and filters noise interference. The on-chip, 4.096-V, ultra-low drift voltage reference is used as the reference for the ADC core.
Digital isolation is achieved using an ISO7141CC and ISO1541D. The host microcontroller communicates with a TCA6408A (an 8-bit, I2C, I/O expander over an I2C bus). The ISO1541D is a bidirectional, I2C isolator that isolates the I2C lines for the TCA6408A. The TCA6408A controls the low RON opto-switch (TLP3123) that is used to switch between voltage-to-current input modes. The input channel configuration is done in microcontroller firmware.
A low-cost, constant, on-time, synchronous buck regulator in fly-buck configuration with an external transformer (LM5017) generates the isolated power supply. The LM5017 has a wide input supply range, making this device ideal for accepting a 24-V industrial supply. This transformer can accept up to 100 V, thereby making reliable transient protection of the input supply more easily achievable. The fly-buck power supply isolates and steps the input voltage down to 6 V. The supply then provides that voltage to the TPS70950 (the low dropout regulator) to generate 5 V to power the ADS8678 and other circuitry. The LM5017 also features a number of other safety and reliability functions, such as undervoltage lockout (UVLO), thermal shutdown, and peak current limit protection.
Input analog signals are protected against high-voltage, fast-transient events often expected in an industrial environment. The protection circuitry makes use of the transient voltage suppressor (TVS) and ESD diodes. The RC low-pass mode filters are used on each analog input before the input reaches the ADS8678, thus eliminating any high-frequency noise pickups and minimizing aliasing.
|For a step-by-step design procedure, circuit schematics, bill of materials, PCB files, simulation results, and test results, see 16-Bit, 8-Channel, Integrated Analog Input Module for Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) (TIDU365).|