SBOS724 September 2015 OPA1688
UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED, this document contains PRODUCTION DATA.
The OPA168x family of operational amplifiers provide high overall performance, making them ideal for many general-purpose applications. The excellent offset drift of only 1.5 µV/°C (max) provides excellent stability over the entire temperature range. In addition, the device offers very good overall performance with high CMRR, PSRR, AOL, and superior THD.
The Functional Block Diagram section shows the simplified diagram of the OPA168x design. The design topology is a highly-optimized, three-stage amplifier with an active-feedforward gain stage.
The OPA168x uses integrated electromagnetic interference (EMI) filtering to reduce the effects of EMI from sources such as wireless communications and densely-populated boards with a mix of analog signal chain and digital components. EMI immunity can be improved with circuit design techniques; the OPA168x benefits from these design improvements. Texas Instruments has developed the ability to accurately measure and quantify the immunity of an operational amplifier over a broad frequency spectrum extending from 10 MHz to 6 GHz. Figure 44 shows the results of this testing on the OPA168x. Table 2 shows the EMIRR IN+ values for the OPA168x at particular frequencies commonly encountered in real-world applications. Applications listed in Table 2 can be centered on or operated near the particular frequency shown. Detailed information can also be found in application report SBOA128, EMI Rejection Ratio of Operational Amplifiers, available for download from www.ti.com.
|PRF = –10 dBm, VSUPPLY = ±18 V, VCM = 0 V|
|FREQUENCY||APPLICATION OR ALLOCATION||EMIRR IN+|
|400 MHz||Mobile radio, mobile satellite, space operation, weather, radar, and ultrahigh frequency (UHF) applications||47.6 dB|
|900 MHz||Global system for mobile communications (GSM) applications, radio communication, navigation, GPS (to 1.6 GHz), GSM, aeronautical mobile, and UHF applications||58.5 dB|
|1.8 GHz||GSM applications, mobile personal communications, broadband, satellite, and L-band (1 GHz to 2 GHz)||68 dB|
|2.4 GHz||802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, Bluetooth®, mobile personal communications, industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio band, amateur radio and satellite, and S-band (2 GHz to 4 GHz)||69.2 dB|
|3.6 GHz||Radiolocation, aero communication and navigation, satellite, mobile, and S-band||82.9 dB|
|5.0 GHz||802.11a, 802.11n, aero communication and navigation, mobile communication, space and satellite operation, and C-band (4 GHz to 8 GHz)||114 dB|
The OPA168x family has internal phase-reversal protection. Many op amps exhibit phase reversal when the input is driven beyond the linear common-mode range. This condition is most often encountered in noninverting circuits when the input is driven beyond the specified common-mode voltage range, causing the output to reverse into the opposite rail. The input of the OPA168x prevents phase reversal with excessive common-mode voltage. Instead, the appropriate rail limits the output voltage. This performance is shown in Figure 45.
The dynamic characteristics of the OPA168x are optimized for commonly-used operating conditions. The combination of low closed-loop gain and high capacitive loads decreases the phase margin of the amplifier and may lead to gain peaking or oscillations. As a result, heavier capacitive loads must be isolated from the output. The simplest way to achieve this isolation is to add a small resistor (for example, ROUT = 50 Ω) in series with the output. Figure 46 and Figure 47 show graphs of small-signal overshoot versus capacitive load for several values of ROUT; see application bulletin SBOA015 (AB-028), Feedback Plots Define Op Amp AC Performance, available for download from www.ti.com, for details of analysis techniques and application circuits.
|G = –1|
|G = 1|
The input common-mode voltage range of the OPA168x series extends 100 mV below the negative rail and within 2 V of the top rail for normal operation.
This device can operate with full rail-to-rail input 100 mV beyond the top rail, but with reduced performance within 2 V of the top rail. The typical performance in this range is summarized in Table 3.
|Input common-mode voltage||(V+) – 2||(V+) + 0.1||V|
|Offset voltage vs temperature (TA = –40°C to 85°C)||10||µV/°C|
|Gain bandwidth product (GBP)||4||MHz|
|Noise at f = 1 kHz||22||nV/√Hz|
Designers often ask questions about the capability of an operational amplifier to withstand electrical overstress. These questions tend to focus on the device inputs, but can involve the supply voltage pins or even the output pin. Each of these different pin functions have electrical stress limits determined by the voltage breakdown characteristics of the particular semiconductor fabrication process and specific circuits connected to the pin. Additionally, internal electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection is built into these circuits to protect them from accidental ESD events both before and during product assembly.
A good understanding of this basic ESD circuitry and its relevance to an electrical overstress event is helpful. Figure 48 illustrates the ESD circuits contained in the OPA168x (indicated by the dashed line area). The ESD protection circuitry involves several current-steering diodes connected from the input and output pins and routed back to the internal power-supply lines, where the diodes meet at an absorption device internal to the operational amplifier. This protection circuitry is intended to remain inactive during normal circuit operation.
An ESD event produces a short-duration, high-voltage pulse that is transformed into a short-duration, high-current pulse when discharging through a semiconductor device. The ESD protection circuits are designed to provide a current path around the operational amplifier core to prevent damage. The energy absorbed by the protection circuitry is then dissipated as heat.
When an ESD voltage develops across two or more amplifier device pins, current flows through one or more steering diodes. Depending on the path that the current takes, the absorption device can activate. The absorption device has a trigger, or threshold voltage, that is above the normal operating voltage of the OPA168x but below the device breakdown voltage level. When this threshold is exceeded, the absorption device quickly activates and clamps the voltage across the supply rails to a safe level.
When the operational amplifier connects into a circuit (Figure 48), the ESD protection components are intended to remain inactive and do not become involved in the application circuit operation. However, circumstances may arise where an applied voltage exceeds the operating voltage range of a given pin. If this condition occurs, there is a risk that some internal ESD protection circuits can turn on and conduct current. Any such current flow occurs through steering-diode paths and rarely involves the absorption device.
Figure 48 shows a specific example where the input voltage (VIN) exceeds the positive supply voltage (+VS) by 500 mV or more. Much of what happens in the circuit depends on the supply characteristics. If +VS can sink the current, one of the upper input steering diodes conducts and directs current to +VS. Excessively high current levels can flow with increasingly higher VIN. As a result, the data sheet specifications recommend that applications limit the input current to 10 mA.
If the supply is not capable of sinking the current, VIN can begin sourcing current to the operational amplifier and then take over as the source of positive supply voltage. The danger in this case is that the voltage can rise to levels that exceed the operational amplifier absolute maximum ratings.
Another common question involves what happens to the amplifier if an input signal is applied to the input when the power supplies (+VS or –VS) are at 0 V. Again, this question depends on the supply characteristic when at 0 V, or at a level below the input-signal amplitude. If the supplies appear as high impedance, then the input source supplies the operational amplifier current through the current-steering diodes. This state is not a normal bias condition; most likely, the amplifier will not operate normally. If the supplies are low impedance, then the current through the steering diodes can become quite high. The current level depends on the ability of the input source to deliver current, and any resistance in the input path.
If there is any uncertainty about the ability of the supply to absorb this current, add external zener diodes to the supply pins; see Figure 48. Select the zener voltage so that the diode does not turn on during normal operation. However, the zener voltage must be low enough so that the zener diode conducts if the supply pin begins to rise above the safe-operating, supply-voltage level.
The OPA168x input pins are protected from excessive differential voltage with back-to-back diodes; see Figure 48. In most circuit applications, the input protection circuitry has no effect. However, in low-gain or G = 1 circuits, fast-ramping input signals can forward-bias these diodes because the output of the amplifier cannot respond rapidly enough to the input ramp. If the input signal is fast enough to create this forward-bias condition, limit the input signal current to 10 mA or less. If the input signal current is not inherently limited, an input series resistor can be used to limit the input signal current. This input series resistor degrades the low-noise performance of the OPA168x. Figure 48 illustrates an example configuration that implements a current-limiting feedback resistor.
Overload recovery is defined as the time required for the op amp output to recover from the saturated state to the linear state. The output devices of the op amp enter the saturation region when the output voltage exceeds the rated operating voltage, either resulting from the high input voltage or the high gain. After the device enters the saturation region, the charge carriers in the output devices need time to return back to the normal state. After the charge carriers return back to the equilibrium state, the device begins to slew at the normal slew rate. Thus, the propagation delay in case of an overload condition is the sum of the overload recovery time and the slew time. The overload recovery time for the OPA168x is approximately 200 ns.