SLVSC31D December   2013  – August 2015 TPS7A4501-SP


  1. Features
  2. Applications
  3. Description
  4. Revision History
  5. Description (continued)
  6. Pin Configuration and Functions
  7. Specifications
    1. 7.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings
    2. 7.2 ESD Ratings
    3. 7.3 Recommended Operating Conditions
    4. 7.4 Thermal Information
    5. 7.5 Electrical Characteristics (5962-1222402VHA and 5962-1222402V9A)
    6. 7.6 Electrical Characteristics (5962R1222403VXC and 5962R1222403V9A)
    7. 7.7 Typical Characteristics
  8. Detailed Description
    1. 8.1 Overview
    2. 8.2 Functional Block Diagram
    3. 8.3 Feature Description
      1. 8.3.1 Adjustable Operation
      2. 8.3.2 Fixed Operation
      3. 8.3.3 Overload Recovery
      4. 8.3.4 Output Voltage Noise
      5. 8.3.5 Protection Features
    4. 8.4 Device Functional Modes
  9. Application and Implementation
    1. 9.1 Application Information
    2. 9.2 Typical Application
      1. 9.2.1 Design Requirements
      2. 9.2.2 Detailed Design Procedure
        1. Output Capacitance and Transient Response
        2. Compensation
      3. 9.2.3 Application Curves
  10. 10Power Supply Recommendations
  11. 11Layout
    1. 11.1 Layout Guidelines
    2. 11.2 Layout Example
    3. 11.3 Thermal Considerations
      1. 11.3.1 Calculating Junction Temperature
  12. 12Device and Documentation Support
    1. 12.1 Device Support
      1. 12.1.1 Third-Party Products Disclaimer
    2. 12.2 Community Resources
    3. 12.3 Trademarks
    4. 12.4 Electrostatic Discharge Caution
    5. 12.5 Glossary
  13. 13Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information



8 Detailed Description

8.1 Overview

The TPS7A4501-SP is a 1.5-A LDO regulator optimized for fast-transient response. The devices are capable of supplying 1.5 A at a dropout voltage of 320 mV. The low operating quiescent current (1 mA) drops to less than 50 μA in shutdown. In addition to the low quiescent current, the TPS7A4501-SP regulators incorporate several protection features that make them ideal for use in battery-powered systems. The devices are protected against both reverse input and reverse output voltages. In battery-backup applications where the output can be held up by a backup battery when the input is pulled to ground, the TPS7A4501-SP functions as if it has a diode in series with its output and prevents reverse current flow. Additionally, in dual-supply applications where the regulator load is returned to a negative supply, the output can be pulled below ground by as much as (20 V – VIN) and still allow the device to start and operate.

8.2 Functional Block Diagram

TPS7A4501-SP FunctionalBlockDiagramSLVS720.gif

8.3 Feature Description

8.3.1 Adjustable Operation

The adjustable TPS7A4501-SP has an output voltage range of 1.21 to 20 V. The output voltage is set by the ratio of two external resistors as shown in Figure 20. The device maintains the voltage at the ADJ pin at 1.21 V referenced to ground. The current in R1 is then equal to (1.21 V/R1), and the current in R2 is the current in R1 plus the ADJ pin bias current. The ADJ pin bias current, 3 μA at 25°C, flows through R2 into the ADJ pin. Calculate the output voltage using the formula shown in Figure 20. The value of R1 should be less than 4.17 kΩ to minimize errors in the output voltage caused by the ADJ pin bias current. Note that in shutdown, the output is turned off, and the divider current is zero.

TPS7A4501-SP app_adj_op_lvs720.gifFigure 20. Adjustable Operation Schematic

The adjustable device is tested and specified with the ADJ pin tied to the OUT pin for an output voltage of 1.21 V. Specifications for output voltages greater than 1.21 V are proportional to the ratio of the desired output voltage to 1.21 V: VOUT / 1.21 V. For example, load regulation for an output current change of 1 mA to 1.5 A is –3 mV (typical) at VOUT = 1.21 V. At VOUT = 5 V, load regulation is:

Equation 1. (5 V / 1.21 V)(–3 mV) = –12.4 mV

8.3.2 Fixed Operation

The TPS7A4501-SP can be used in a fixed-voltage configuration. Connect the SENSE/ADJ pin to OUT for proper operation. Figure 21 shows an example of this for a fixed output voltage of 1.21 V. During fixed voltage operation, the SENSE/ADJ pin can be used for a Kelvin connection if routed separately to the load. This allows the regulator to compensate for voltage drop across parasitic resistances (RP) between the output and the load. This compensation becomes more crucial with higher-load currents.

TPS7A4501-SP app_kelvin_lvs720.gifFigure 21. Kelvin Sense Connection

8.3.3 Overload Recovery

Like many IC power regulators, the TPS7A4501-SP has safe operating area protection. The safe area protection decreases the current limit as input-to-output voltage increases and keeps the power transistor inside a safe operating region for all values of input-to-output voltage. The protection is designed to provide some output current at all values of input-to-output voltage up to the device breakdown.

When power is first turned on, as the input voltage rises, the output follows the input, allowing the regulator to start up into very-heavy loads. During start up, as the input voltage is rising, the input-to-output voltage differential is small, allowing the regulator to supply large output currents. With a high input voltage, a problem can occur wherein removal of an output short does not allow the output voltage to recover. Other regulators also exhibit this phenomenon, so it is not unique to the TPS7A4501-SP.

The problem occurs with a heavy output load when the input voltage is high and the output voltage is low. Common situations occur immediately after the removal of a short circuit or when the shutdown pin is pulled high after the input voltage has already been turned on. The load line for such a load may intersect the output current curve at two points. If this happens, there are two stable output operating points for the regulator. With this double intersection, the input power supply may need to be cycled down to 0 and brought up again to make the output recover.

8.3.4 Output Voltage Noise

The TPS7A4501-SP regulator is designed to provide low output voltage noise over the 10-Hz to 100-kHz bandwidth while operating at full load. Output voltage noise is typically 50 µV/√Hz over this frequency bandwidth for the TPS7A4501-SP. For higher output voltages (generated by using a resistor divider), the output voltage noise is gained up accordingly.

Higher values of output voltage noise may be measured when care is not exercised with regard to circuit layout and testing. Crosstalk from nearby traces can induce unwanted noise onto the output of the TPS7A4501-SP. The user must also consider power-supply ripple rejection; the TPS7A4501-SP regulator does not have unlimited power-supply rejection and passes a small portion of the input noise through to the output.

TPS7A4501-SP output_noise_slvsc31.gifFigure 22. Output Noise Plot, VIN = 7 V, VOUT = 5 V At 750 mA , COUT = 22 µF Tantalum Capacitor

8.3.5 Protection Features

The TPS7A4501-SP regulator incorporates several protection features, which makes the regulator ideal for use in battery-powered circuits. In addition to the normal protection features associated with monolithic regulators, such as current limiting and thermal limiting, the device is protected against reverse input voltages, reverse output voltages, and reverse voltages from output to input.

Current limit protection and thermal overload protection are intended to protect the device against current overload conditions at the output of the device. For normal operation, the junction temperature should not exceed 125°C. TPS7A4501-SP incorporates thermal protection which disables the output when the junction temperature rises approximately 175°C, allowing the device to cool.

The input of the device withstands reverse voltages of 20 V. Current flow into the device is limited to less than 1 mA (typically less than 100 μA), and no negative voltage appears at the output. The device protects both itself and the load. This provides protection against batteries that can be plugged in backward.

The output of the TPS7A4501-SP can be pulled below ground without damaging the device. If the input is left open circuit or grounded, the output can be pulled below ground by 20 V. The output acts like an open circuit; no current flows out of the pin. If the input is powered by a voltage source, the output sources the short-circuit current of the device and protects itself by thermal limiting. In this case, grounding the SHDN pin turns off the device and stops the output from sourcing the short-circuit current.

The ADJ pin of the adjustable device can be pulled above or below ground by as much as 7 V without damaging the device. If the input is left open circuit or grounded, the ADJ pin acts like an open circuit when pulled below ground and like a large resistor (typically 5 kΩ) in series with a diode when pulled above ground.

In situations where the ADJ pin is connected to a resistor divider that would pull the ADJ pin above its 7-V clamp voltage if the output is pulled high, the ADJ pin input current must be limited to less than 5 mA. For example, a resistor divider is used to provide a regulated 1.5-V output from the 1.21-V reference when the output is forced to 20 V. Choose the top resistor of the resistor divider so as to limit the current into the ADJ pin to <5 mA when the ADJ pin is at 7 V. The 13-V difference between OUT and ADJ divided by the 5-mA maximum current into the ADJ pin yields a minimum top resistor value of 2.6 kΩ.

In circuits where a backup battery is required, several different input/output conditions can occur. The output voltage may be held up while the input is either pulled to ground, pulled to some intermediate voltage, or is left open circuit.

When the IN pin of the TPS7A4501-SP is forced below the OUT pin or the OUT pin is pulled above the IN pin, input current typically drops to less than 2 μA. This can happen if the input of the device is connected to a discharged (low-voltage) battery and the output is held up by either a backup battery or a second regulator circuit. The state of the SHDN pin has no effect on the reverse output current when the output is pulled above the input.

8.4 Device Functional Modes

Table 1 shows the device modes.

Table 1. Device Modes

H Regulated voltage
L Shutdown