Analog PWM generator with 5-V 500-kHz output reference design


Design files


This verified design uses a triangle wave generator and comparator to generate a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) waveform with a duty cycle that is inversely proportional to the input voltage. An op amp and comparator generate a triangular waveform which is passed to one input of a comparator. By passing the input voltage to the other comparator input, a PWM waveform is produced. Negative feedback of the PWM waveform to an error amplifier is utilized to ensure high accuracy and linearity of the output. The OPA2365 op amp, TLV3502 comparator, and REF3325 reference were used to build this design.

  • Utilizes a triangle wave generator and comparator to generate PWM waveform
  • Single-Supply Solution
  • -2V to 2V input, DC coupled
  • 5V, 500kHz PWM output
  • 0.22% Measured Gain Error
  • 0.108% Measured Offset Error
This Verified Design Includes:
  • Theory
  • Component Selection
  • TINA-TI Simulation
  • Schematics and PCB Layout
  • Verification and Measured Performance
  • Modification Options
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A fully assembled board has been developed for testing and performance validation only, and is not available for sale.

Design files & products

Design files

Download ready-to-use system files to speed your design process.

SLAC578.ZIP (889 K)

Detailed schematic diagram for design layout and components

TIDR186.PDF (89 K)

Detailed schematic diagram for design layout and components

TIDR208.PDF (61 K)

Complete listing of design components, reference designators, and manufacturers/part numbers

TIDC146.ZIP (795 K)

Design file that contains information on physical board layer of design PCB


Includes TI products in the design and potential alternatives.


TLV35024.5ns Rail-to-Rail Comparator

Data sheet: PDF | HTML
High-speed op amps (GBW ≥ 50 MHz)

OPA23652.2V, 50MHz, Low-Noise Single-Supply Rail-to-Rail Operational Amplifiers

Data sheet: PDF | HTML
Series voltage references

REF33252.5-V, 30-ppm/°C drift, 3.9-µA, 3-pin SOT-23, 3-pin SC70, 8-pin UQFN voltage reference

Data sheet: PDF | HTML

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Technical documentation

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Type Title Date
* User guide TIPD108 Verified Design Reference Guide Sep. 19, 2013

Related design resources

Design tools & simulation

TINA-TI SPICE-based analog simulation program

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