SNVS124F November   1999  – April 2021 LM2596


  1. Features
  2. Applications
  3. Description
  4. Revision History
  5. Description (continued)
  6. Pin Configuration and Functions
  7. Specifications
    1. 7.1  Absolute Maximum Ratings
    2. 7.2  ESD Ratings
    3. 7.3  Operating Conditions
    4. 7.4  Thermal Information
    5. 7.5  Electrical Characteristics – 3.3-V Version
    6. 7.6  Electrical Characteristics – 5-V Version
    7. 7.7  Electrical Characteristics – 12-V Version
    8. 7.8  Electrical Characteristics – Adjustable Voltage Version
    9. 7.9  Electrical Characteristics – All Output Voltage Versions
    10. 7.10 Typical Characteristics
  8. Detailed Description
    1. 8.1 Overview
    2. 8.2 Functional Block Diagram
    3. 8.3 Feature Description
      1. 8.3.1 Delayed Start-Up
      2. 8.3.2 Undervoltage Lockout
      3. 8.3.3 Inverting Regulator
      4. 8.3.4 Inverting Regulator Shutdown Methods
    4. 8.4 Device Functional Modes
      1. 8.4.1 Discontinuous Mode Operation
  9. Application and Implementation
    1. 9.1 Application Information
      1. 9.1.1 Input Capacitor (CIN)
      2. 9.1.2 Feedforward Capacitor (CFF)
      3. 9.1.3 Output Capacitor (COUT)
      4. 9.1.4 Catch Diode
      5. 9.1.5 Inductor Selection
      6. 9.1.6 Output Voltage Ripple and Transients
      7. 9.1.7 Open-Core Inductors
    2. 9.2 Typical Applications
      1. 9.2.1 LM2596 Fixed Output Series Buck Regulator
        1. Design Requirements
        2. Detailed Design Procedure
          1. Custom Design with WEBENCH Tools
          2. Inductor Selection (L1)
          3. Output Capacitor Selection (COUT)
          4. Catch Diode Selection (D1)
          5. Input Capacitor (CIN)
        3. Application Curves
      2. 9.2.2 LM2596 Adjustable Output Series Buck Regulator
        1. Design Requirements
        2. Detailed Design Procedure
          1. Programming Output Voltage
          2. Inductor Selection (L1)
          3. Output Capacitor Selection (COUT)
          4. Feedforward Capacitor (CFF)
          5. Catch Diode Selection (D1)
          6. Input Capacitor (CIN)
        3. Application Curves
  10. 10Power Supply Recommendations
  11. 11Layout
    1. 11.1 Layout Guidelines
    2. 11.2 Layout Examples
    3. 11.3 Thermal Considerations
  12. 12Device and Documentation Support
    1. 12.1 Device Support
      1. 12.1.1 Third-Party Products Disclaimer
      2. 12.1.2 Custom Design with WEBENCH Tools
    2. 12.2 Receiving Notification of Documentation Updates
    3. 12.3 Support Resources
    4. 12.4 Trademarks
    5. 12.5 Electrostatic Discharge Caution
    6. 12.6 Glossary
  13. 13Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information

Package Options

Refer to the PDF data sheet for device specific package drawings

Mechanical Data (Package|Pins)
  • NDH|5
  • NEB|5
  • KTT|5
Thermal pad, mechanical data (Package|Pins)
Orderable Information

Inverting Regulator

The circuit in Figure 8-5 converts a positive input voltage to a negative output voltage with a common ground. The circuit operates by bootstrapping the ground pin of the regulator to the negative output voltage, then grounding the feedback pin, the regulator senses the inverted output voltage and regulates it.

This circuit has an ON/OFF threshold of approximately 13 V.
Figure 8-3 Undervoltage Lockout for Inverting Regulator

This example uses the LM2596-5.0 to generate a −5-V output, but other output voltages are possible by selecting other output voltage versions, including the adjustable version. Because this regulator topology can produce an output voltage that is either greater than or less than the input voltage, the maximum output current greatly depends on both the input and output voltage. Figure 8-6 provides a guide as to the amount of output load current possible for the different input and output voltage conditions.

The maximum voltage appearing across the regulator is the absolute sum of the input and output voltage, and this must be limited to a maximum of 40 V. For example, when converting +20 V to −12 V, the regulator would see 32 V between the input pin and ground pin. The LM2596 has a maximum input voltage spec of 40 V.

Additional diodes are required in this regulator configuration. Diode D1 is used to isolate input voltage ripple or noise from coupling through the CIN capacitor to the output, under light or no load conditions. Also, this diode isolation changes the topology to closely resemble a buck configuration, thus providing good closed-loop stability. TI recommends using a Schottky diode for low input voltages, (because of its lower voltage drop) but for higher input voltages, a fast recovery diode could be used.

Without diode D3, when the input voltage is first applied, the charging current of CIN can pull the output positive by several volts for a short period of time. Adding D3 prevents the output from going positive by more than a diode voltage.

This circuit has hysteresis Regulator starts switching at VIN = 13 V Regulator stops switching at VIN = 8 V
Figure 8-4 Undervoltage Lockout With Hysteresis for Inverting Regulator
CIN — 68-μF, 25-V Tant. Sprague 595D 470 -μF, 50-V Elec. Panasonic HFQ COUT — 47-μF, 20-V Tant. Sprague 595D 220-μF, 25-V Elec. Panasonic HFQ
Figure 8-5 Inverting −5-V Regulator With Delayed Start-Up
GUID-8074A8BE-46CE-40C0-B82F-1DE5F6852A71-low.pngFigure 8-6 Inverting Regulator Typical Load Current

Because of differences in the operation of the inverting regulator, the standard design procedure is not used to select the inductor value. In the majority of designs, a 33-μH, 3.5-A inductor is the best choice. Capacitor selection can also be narrowed down to just a few values. Using the values shown in Figure 8-5 will provide good results in the majority of inverting designs.

This type of inverting regulator can require relatively large amounts of input current when starting up, even with light loads. Input currents as high as the LM2596 current limit (approximately 4.5 A) are required for at least 2 ms or more, until the output reaches its nominal output voltage. The actual time depends on the output voltage and the size of the output capacitor. Input power sources that are current limited or sources that can not deliver these currents without getting loaded down, may not work correctly. Because of the relatively high start-up currents required by the inverting topology, the delayed start-up feature (C1, R1, and R2) shown in Figure 8-5 is recommended. By delaying the regulator start-up, the input capacitor is allowed to charge up to a higher voltage before the switcher begins operating. A portion of the high input current required for start-up is now supplied by the input capacitor (CIN). For severe start-up conditions, the input capacitor can be made much larger than normal.