SBOS933I February   2019  – August 2021 OPA2990 , OPA4990 , OPA990


  1. Features
  2. Applications
  3. Description
  4. Revision History
  5. Pin Configuration and Functions
  6. Specifications
    1. 6.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings
    2. 6.2 ESD Ratings
    3. 6.3 Recommended Operating Conditions
    4. 6.4 Thermal Information for Single Channel
    5. 6.5 Thermal Information for Dual Channel
    6. 6.6 Thermal Information for Quad Channel
    7. 6.7 Electrical Characteristics
    8. 6.8 Typical Characteristics
  7. Detailed Description
    1. 7.1 Overview
    2. 7.2 Functional Block Diagram
    3. 7.3 Feature Description
      1. 7.3.1  Input Protection Circuitry
      2. 7.3.2  EMI Rejection
      3. 7.3.3  Thermal Protection
      4. 7.3.4  Capacitive Load and Stability
      5. 7.3.5  Common-Mode Voltage Range
      6. 7.3.6  Phase Reversal Protection
      7. 7.3.7  Electrical Overstress
      8. 7.3.8  Overload Recovery
      9. 7.3.9  Typical Specifications and Distributions
      10. 7.3.10 Packages With an Exposed Thermal Pad
      11. 7.3.11 Shutdown
    4. 7.4 Device Functional Modes
  8. Application and Implementation
    1. 8.1 Application Information
    2. 8.2 Typical Applications
      1. 8.2.1 High Voltage Buffered Multiplexer
      2. 8.2.2 Slew Rate Limit for Input Protection
  9. Power Supply Recommendations
  10. 10Layout
    1. 10.1 Layout Guidelines
    2. 10.2 Layout Example
  11. 11Device and Documentation Support
    1. 11.1 Device Support
      1. 11.1.1 Development Support
        1. TINA-TI (Free Software Download)
    2. 11.2 Documentation Support
      1. 11.2.1 Related Documentation
    3. 11.3 Receiving Notification of Documentation Updates
    4. 11.4 Support Resources
    5. 11.5 Trademarks
    6. 11.6 Electrostatic Discharge Caution
    7. 11.7 Glossary
  12. 12Mechanical, Packaging, and Orderable Information

Package Options

Mechanical Data (Package|Pins)
Thermal pad, mechanical data (Package|Pins)
Orderable Information

Typical Specifications and Distributions

Designers often have questions about a typical specification of an amplifier in order to design a more robust circuit. Due to natural variation in process technology and manufacturing procedures, every specification of an amplifier will exhibit some amount of deviation from the ideal value, like an amplifier's input offset voltage. These deviations often follow Gaussian ("bell curve"), or normal distributions, and circuit designers can leverage this information to guardband their system, even when there is not a minimum or maximum specification in the Electrical Characteristics table.

GUID-67C0DD7A-7206-4D09-B3B2-BC381262906C-low.gifFigure 7-11 Ideal Gaussian Distribution

Figure 7-11 shows an example distribution, where µ, or mu, is the mean of the distribution, and where σ, or sigma, is the standard deviation of a system. For a specification that exhibits this kind of distribution, approximately two-thirds (68.26%) of all units can be expected to have a value within one standard deviation, or one sigma, of the mean (from µ–σ to µ+σ).

Depending on the specification, values listed in the typical column of the Electrical Characteristics table are represented in different ways. As a general rule of thumb, if a specification naturally has a nonzero mean (for example, like gain bandwidth), then the typical value is equal to the mean (µ). However, if a specification naturally has a mean near zero (like input offset voltage), then the typical value is equal to the mean plus one standard deviation (µ + σ) in order to most accurately represent the typical value.

You can use this chart to calculate approximate probability of a specification in a unit; for example, for OPAx990, the typical input voltage offset is 300 µV, so 68.2% of all OPAx990 devices are expected to have an offset from –300 µV to +300 µV. At 4 σ (±1200 µV), 99.9937% of the distribution has an offset voltage less than ±1200 µV, which means 0.0063% of the population is outside of these limits, which corresponds to about 1 in 15,873 units.

Specifications with a value in the minimum or maximum column are assured by TI, and units outside these limits will be removed from production material. For example, the OPAx990 family has a maximum offset voltage of 1.5 mV at 25°C, and even though this corresponds to 5 σ (≈1 in 1.7 million units), which is extremely unlikely, TI assures that any unit with larger offset than 1.5 mV will be removed from production material.

For specifications with no value in the minimum or maximum column, consider selecting a sigma value of sufficient guardband for your application, and design worst-case conditions using this value. For example, the 6σ value corresponds to about 1 in 500 million units, which is an extremely unlikely chance, and could be an option as a wide guardband to design a system around. In this case, the OPAx990 family does not have a maximum or minimum for offset voltage drift, but based on Figure 6-2 and the typical value of 0.6 µV/°C in the Electrical Characteristics table, it can be calculated that the 6-σ value for offset voltage drift is about 3.6 µV/°C. When designing for worst-case system conditions, this value can be used to estimate the worst possible offset across temperature without having an actual minimum or maximum value.

However, process variation and adjustments over time can shift typical means and standard deviations, and unless there is a value in the minimum or maximum specification column, TI cannot assure the performance of a device. This information should be used only to estimate the performance of a device.