CAN is a differential bus where complementary signals are sent over two wires and the voltage difference between the two wires defines the logical state of the bus. The differential CAN receiver monitors this voltage difference and outputs the bus state with a single-ended output signal.
The CAN driver creates the differential voltage between CANH and CANL in the dominant state. The dominant differential output of the SN65HVD23x is greater than 1.5 V and less than 3 V across a 60 ohm load as defined by the ISO 11898 standard. These are the same limiting values for 5 V supplied CAN transceivers. Typically, the bus termination resistors drive the bus back to the recessive bus state and not the CAN driver.
A CAN receiver is required to output a recessive state when less than 500 mV of differential voltage exists on the bus, and a dominant state when more than 900 mV of differential voltage exists on the bus. The CAN receiver must do this with common-mode input voltages from -2 V to 7 volts per the ISO 11898-2 standard. The SN65HVD23x family receivers meet these same input specifications as 5 V supplied receivers.