The controller includes a switched, high-voltage, current source on the HV pin to allow fast start-up, and eliminates the static power dissipation in a conventional resistive start-up approach. This feature reduces standby power consumption.
The HV pin has three major functions:
The UCC28630 and UCC28633 input supply to the HV start-up pin must be connected to the AC side of the bridge rectifier as shown in Figure 15, in order to support X-capacitor discharge. More details are given in Active X-Capacitor Discharge (UCC28630 and UCC28633 only), below. Connection to the AC side of the bridge also allows faster detection of AC mains removal under latched fault conditions, allowing prompt reset of latched faults for fast restart.
In the UCC28631, UCC28632 and UCC28634, the HV pin can connect to either the AC or DC side of the bridge. The addition of the 200-kΩ external HV resistance (required for X-capacitor discharge sensing) limits the available charging current for the external bias supply input capacitor. However, for typical values of between 22 µF and 33 µF of input capacitance, start-up bias times of less than 1.5 s are achievable at 90 VAC. Start-up time can be estimated using Equation 1.
For 90 VAC, if CVDD = 22 µF and worst case VDD(start_max) = 16.5 V, then tSTART is 1.002 s.
Figure 16 illustrates the start-up behavior of the controller. The HV current source has built-in short-circuit protection that limits the initial charge current out of the bias voltage pin until the bias voltage reaches VDD(sc). This limits the power dissipated in the HV current source in the event of a short circuit on the VDD pin. Thereafter, the HV current source switches to full available current. The controller remains in a low-power, start-up mode until the bias voltage reaches VDD(start), after which the HV current source is turned off and the controller initiates a start-up sequence.
The bias voltage decays during the start-up sequence at a rate dependent on the size of the energy storage capacitor connected to the VDD pin. The VDD storage capacitor must be sized appropriately to ensure adequate energy storage to supply both the controller bias power and MOSFET drive power during start-up, until the VDD rail can be supplied through the transformer bias winding. If the bias voltage falls below VDD(stop) (due to bias winding fault or an inadequate VDD storage capacitance), the controller stops switching, and transitions into low-power mode for a time delay of tRESET(long), or until the bias voltage falls to the VDD(reset) level, whichever is shorter. See VDD Capacitor Selection for required VDD capacitor sizing. Once the time delay elapses, the bias voltage rapidly discharges to the VDD(reset) level, followed by turn-on of the internal HV current source, and a normal restart attempt follows.