SLVA958B June   2021  – May 2022 LM2776 , LM27761 , LM27762 , LM3670 , LM3671 , LM3674 , LM7705 , TLV62065 , TLV62080 , TLV62084 , TLV62084A , TLV62085 , TLV62090 , TLV62095 , TLV62130 , TLV62130A , TLV62150 , TLV62565 , TLV62568 , TLV62569 , TLV62585 , TPS60400 , TPS60403 , TPS62065 , TPS62080 , TPS62085 , TPS62088 , TPS62090 , TPS62095 , TPS62097 , TPS62110 , TPS62120 , TPS62122 , TPS62125 , TPS62130 , TPS62130A , TPS62130A-Q1 , TPS62133 , TPS62135 , TPS62136 , TPS62140 , TPS62142 , TPS62143 , TPS62150 , TPS62160 , TPS62160-Q1 , TPS62162 , TPS62170 , TPS62170-Q1 , TPS62172 , TPS62173 , TPS62175 , TPS62177 , TPS62180 , TPS62200 , TPS62203 , TPS62230 , TPS62240 , TPS62260 , TPS62290 , TPS62400 , TPS62420 , TPS62480 , TPS62560 , TPS62730 , TPS62740 , TPS62742 , TPS62743 , TPS62745 , TPS62746 , TPS62748 , TPS62770 , TPS62800 , TPS62801 , TPS62802 , TPS62806 , TPS62807 , TPS62808 , TPS62821 , TPS62840 , TPS63700 , TPS63710 , TPS82084 , TPS82085 , TPS82130 , TPS82140 , TPS82150 , TPS82740A , TPS82740B , TPSM82480 , TPSM82810 , TPSM82813 , TPSM82821 , TPSM82822

 

  1. Abstract
    1.     Trademarks
  2. Introduction
  3. Summary Table
  4. Fundamentals of Switchmode DC/DC Converters
  5. Control – Mode Architecture
  6. Design, Layout, and Manufacturing Support
  7. Thermal Considerations
  8. Low Noise and Controlling EMI
  9. Device-Specific Technical Discussions
  10. Calculation, Simulation, and Measurement Techniques
  11. 10DC/DC Converter Applications
  12. 11Revision History

DC/DC Converter Applications

This section gathers application notes concentrating on specific applications and design implementations of low power DC/DC converters. Example circuits are presented and their performance optimization is discussed.

Step-Down LED Driver With Dimming With the TPS621-Family and TPS821-Family:SLVA451

This application report demonstrates the TPS621x0 family as a small, simple, and easy way to implement a high-brightness LED driver.

Testing Tips for Applying External Power to Supply Outputs Without an Input Voltage:SLYT689

Powering a step-down (buck) converter with a voltage on the output and without a voltage on the input is an atypical application scenario that raises a flag for special considerations. This article explains the main concerns and their mitigation strategies.

Efficient Super-Capacitor Charging with TPS62740:SLVA678

The TI Design PMP9753 shows a concept to buffer energy in a super capacitor and therefore decouple load peaks from the battery. This application note helps designers to calculate and define the parameters like minimum and maximum voltage levels, storage capacitor size or maximum battery current.

Low-Noise CMOS Camera Supply:SLVA672

This application note describes how to design a highly efficient, low-noise CMOS Camera power supply solution based on switching regulators without the need of any additional filtering.

Step-Down Converter With Input Overvoltage Protection:SLVA664

This application report describes an input overvoltage protection circuit using a highly efficient and small step-down converter like TPS62130. It also details the design and selection of the key components and provides measurement results showing the performance of the circuit.

Step-Down Converter with Cable Voltage Drop Compensation:SLVA657

Output voltages of DC/DC converters typically are precisely regulated at the location the feedback divider is connected. In case of longer connections to the load, a voltage drop which depends on the load current must be expected. This application report describes a circuit where compensation is done by adjusting the output voltage of the converter to match the voltage drop along the cables.

Using the TPS62150 in a Split Rail Topology:SLVA616

This application report demonstrates a method of generating a split rail (bipolar +/- output voltages) supply with the TPS62150.

Using the TPS6215x in an Inverting Buck-Boost Topology:SLVA469

Using the TPS62175 in an Inverting Buck Boost Topology:SLVA542

These application reports are a how-to guide on using TI synchronous buck converters in an inverting buck-boost topology, where the output voltage is inverted or negative with respect to ground. The presented solutions are based on devices designed for many applications, such as standard 12-V rail supplies, embedded systems, and portable applications.

Powering the MSP430 From a High Voltage Input Using the TPS62122:SLVA335

This application example is presented to help designers and others who are using the MSP430 in a system with an input voltage range from 3.6 V to 15 V, and who are concerned with maintaining high efficiency and long battery life. Power requirements, illustrated schematic, operation waveforms and bill of materials are included.

Voltage Margining Using the TPS62130:SLVA489

This application report demonstrates a simple circuit that provides a ±5% margining function. This permits testing for high- and low-voltage margining for product evaluation.

Working with Inverting Buck-Boost Converters:SNVA856

Generating a negative output voltage rail from a positive input voltage rail can be done by reconfiguring an ordinary buck regulator. The result is an inverting buck-boost (IBB) topology implementation. This application report gives details regarding this conversion with examples.

DC/DC Converter Solutions for Hardware Accelerators in Data Center Applications:SLVAEG2

Hardware accelerators are custom-made hardware designs on a circuit board that perform specific functions better than software. Hardware accelerators use advanced processors, such as FPGAs, ASICs, SoC and GPUs. These processors are very suitable for performing specific, computation-intensive algorithms. Hardware acceleration helps enable artificial intelligence, including special functionalities such as machine learning, brain simulation, and neural engines. These functions use statistical techniques that allow computer systems to learn from data without being programmed, similar to our understanding of how the brain operates.

Point-of-Load Solutions for Data Center Applications Implementing VR13.HC VCCIN Specification:SLVAE92

Data centers are crucial for business continuity and reliable communications. TI provides performance power management solutions, enabling high availability and efficiency when powering processors for data centers and rack servers. Advanced processors and platforms, such as the Intel® Whitley and Cedar Island platforms, need point-of-load solutions for memory, low-power CPU rails, and 3.3-V and 5-V rail requirements from a 12-V nominal input bus.

Non-Isolated Point-of-Load Solutions for Elkhart Lake in Industrial PC Applications:SLVAET0

This document intends to highlight DC/DC converters from Texas Instruments that provide performance power management solutions to extend battery life while addressing Elkhart Lake platform power requirements.

Non-Isolated DC/DC Solutions for Alder Lake in Notebook Computing Applications:SLUAAA6

This document intends to highlight DC/DC converters and describe their features addressing general Alder Lake power requirements.

Non-Isolated Point-of-Load Solutions for Tiger Lake in PC Applications:SLUAA54

This document intends to highlight DC/DC converters and describe their features addressing general Tiger Lake power requirements. For specific information about Intel processors and their power requirements, log on to the Intel Resource and Design Center. Contact TI for information about multiphase controllers and power stages designed specifically for the Intel Mobile Voltage Positioning (IMVP) requirements.

Point-of-Load Solutions in Data Center Applications for Intel® Xeon® Sapphire Rapids Scalable Processors:SLVAF22

This document intends to highlight DC/DC converters and describe their features addressing performance processor power requirements.

Point-of-Load Solutions for Network Interface Cards (NIC):SNVAA29

Network Interface Cards (NIC) are crucial for business continuity and reliable communications by connecting physical layer circuitry with data link layer standards, such as wired Ethernet or wireless networking.

Synchronizing DC/DC Converters in a Power Tree:SLVAEG8

In this application note, five different configurations of a power tree example generating two output voltages are explained. All five circuits use the same inductors for the DC/DC converters and the same input and output capacitor configuration. In all examples, the converters are also configured to operate at the same nominal frequency of 2.25 MHz and use the same resistance value for the RCF resistors.

Benefiting from Step-Down Converters with an I2C Communication Interface:SLUAAE9

This application report shows the benefits of using a step-down converter with an I2C communication interface. Several applications benefit from controlling features and reading status information from a power management device.

Benefits of a Resistor-to-Digital Converter in Ultra-Low Power Supplies:SLYY180

This white paper explains the R2D circuit, describing its primary benefits as well as its main limitations.

Designing a Negative Boost Converter from a Standard Positive Buck Converter:SLYT516

This article describes a method using a standard positive buck converter to form a negative boost converter, which takes an existing negative voltage and creates an output voltage with a larger (more negative) amplitude. Using a boost regulator results in a smaller, more efficient, and more cost-effective design.

Create a Split-Rail Power Supply with a Wide Input Voltage Buck Regulator:SLVA369

This application report demonstrates a unique method of generating a positive and negative output power supply using a standard buck regulator – one that maintains good regulation, has excellent cross regulation, and can regulate the positive output from a lower input voltage.

Designing an Isolated Buck (Fly-Buck™) Converter:SNVA674

This article presents the basic operating principle of an isolated buck converter. The operating current and voltage waveforms are explained and design equations are derived. The design example shows a step-by-step procedure for designing a practical two-output 3 W isolated buck converter.

Power-Supply Sequencing for FPGAs:SLYT598

This article elaborates on sequencing solutions that can be implemented based on the level of sophistication needed by a system. Sequencing solutions addressed in this article are:

  1. Cascading PGOOD pin into enable pin
  2. Sequencing using a reset IC
  3. Analog up/down sequencers
  4. Digital system health monitors with PMBus interface

Power Supply Design Considerations for Modern FPGAs (Power Designer 121):SNOA864

Today’s FPGAs tend to operate at lower voltages and higher currents than their predecessors. Consequently, power supply requirements may be more demanding, requiring special attention to features deemed less important in past generations. Failure to consider the output voltage, sequencing, power-on, and soft-start requirements can result in unreliable power-up or potential damage to FPGAs.

Remote Sensing for Power Supplies:SLYT467

This article discusses design considerations for remote sensing, including power-plane shortages, component placement, parasitic resistance, and potential oscillations. Also, a practical example demonstrates the effectiveness of a high-frequency bypass capacitor for mitigating oscillations associated with remote sensing.

Effect of Resistor Tolerances on Power Supply Accuracy:SLVA423

This document assists designers in determining the impact of resistor tolerances on a power supply’s output accuracy. It explains how resistive dividers are used in power supply regulation, derives an equation for output accuracy in terms of the divider resistors’ tolerances, and examines the impact of this equation on an example design.