SLUSBH2G March 2013 – March 2019
The bq25570 device is a highly integrated energy harvesting Nano-Power management solution that is well suited for meeting the special needs of ultra low-power applications. The product is specifically designed to efficiently acquire and manage the microwatts (µW) to milliwatts (mW) of power generated from a variety of DC sources like photovoltaic (solar) or thermal electric generators. targeted toward products and systems, such as wireless sensor networks (WSN) which have stringent power and operational demands.
The main boost charger is powered from the boost output, VSTOR. Once the VSTOR voltage is above VSTOR_CHGEN (1.8 V typical), for example, after a partially discharged battery is attached to VBAT, the boost charger can effectively extract power from low voltage output harvesters such as TEGs or single or dual cell solar panels outputting voltages down to VIN(DC) (100 mV minimum). When starting from VSTOR = VBAT < 100 mV, the cold start circuit needs at least VIN(CS), 600 mV typical, to charge VSTOR up to 1.8 V.
The bq25570 also implements a programmable maximum power point tracking sampling network to optimize the transfer of power into the device. The fraction of open circuit voltage that is sampled and held can be controlled by pulling VOC_SAMP high or low (80% or 50% respectively) or by using external resistors. This sampled voltage is maintained via internal sampling circuitry and held with an external capacitor (CREF) on the VREF_SAMP pin. For example, solar cells typically operate with a maximum power point (MPP) of 80% of their open circuit voltage. Connecting VOC_SAMP to VSTOR sets the MPPT threshold to 80% and results in the IC regulating the voltage on the solar cell to ensure that the VIN_DC voltage does not fail below the voltage on CREF which equals 80% of the solar panel's open circuit voltage. Alternatively, an external reference voltage can be provided by a MCU to produce a more complex MPPT algorithm.
The bq25570 is designed with the flexibility to support a variety of energy storage elements. The availability of the sources from which harvesters extract their energy can often be sporadic or time-varying. Systems will typically need some type of energy storage element, such as a re-chargeable battery, super capacitor, or conventional capacitor. The storage element provides constant power to the system. The storage element also allows the system to handle any peak currents that can not directly come from the input source. To prevent damage to a customer’s storage element, both maximum and minimum voltages are monitored against the internally set under-voltage (UV) and user programmable over-voltage (OV) levels.
To further assist users in the strict management of their energy budgets, the bq25570 toggles the battery good (VBAT_OK) flag to signal an attached microprocessor when the voltage on an energy storage battery or capacitor has dropped below a pre-set critical level. This should trigger the reduction of load currents to prevent the system from entering an under voltage condition. There is also independent enable signals to allow the system to control when to run the regulated output or even put the whole IC into an ultra-low quiescent current sleep state.
In addition to the boost charging front end, the bq25570 provides the system with an externally programmable regulated supply via the buck converter. The regulated output has been optimized to provide high efficiency across low output currents (< 10 µA) to high currents (~110 mA).
All the capabilities of bq25570 are packed into a small foot-print 20-lead 3.5-mm x 3.5-mm QFN package (RGR).