SNLS543 August 2018 DS90UH949A-Q1
Circuit board layout and stack-up for the LVDS serializer and deserializer devices should be designed to provide low-noise power to the device. Good layout practice will also separate high frequency or high-level inputs and outputs to minimize unwanted stray noise, feedback, and interference. Power system performance may be greatly improved by using thin dielectrics (2 to 4 mil) for power / ground sandwiches. This arrangement uses the plane capacitance for the PCB power system and has low-inductance, which has proven effectiveness especially at high frequencies, and makes the value and placement of external bypass capacitors less critical. External bypass capacitors should include both RF ceramic and tantalum electrolytic types. RF capacitors may use values in the range of 0.01 μF to 10 μF. Tantalum capacitors may be in the 2.2-μF to 10-μF range. The voltage rating of the tantalum capacitors should be at least 5X the power supply voltage being used.
MLCC surface mount capacitors are recommended due to their smaller parasitic properties. When using multiple capacitors per supply pin, place the smaller value closest to the pin. A large bulk capacitor is recommended at the point of power entry. This is typically in the 50-μF to 100-μF range and will smooth low frequency switching noise. TI recommends connecting the power and ground pins directly to the power and ground planes with bypass capacitors connected to the plane with via on both ends of the capacitor. Connecting power or ground pins to an external bypass capacitor will increase the inductance of the path. A small body size X7R chip capacitor, such as 0603 or 0805, is recommended for external bypass. A small body sized capacitor has less inductance. The user must pay attention to the resonance frequency of these external bypass capacitors, usually in the range of 20 MHz to 30 MHz. To provide effective bypassing, multiple capacitors are often used to achieve low impedance between the supply rails over the frequency of interest. At high frequency, it is also a common practice to use two vias from power and ground pins to the planes, reducing the impedance at high frequency.
Some devices provide separate power and ground pins for different portions of the circuit. This is done to isolate switching noise effects between different sections of the circuit. Separate planes on the PCB are typically not required. Pin Description tables typically provide guidance on which circuit blocks are connected to which power pin pairs. In some cases, an external filter many be used to provide clean power to sensitive circuits such as PLLs. For DS90UH949A-Q1, only one common ground plane is required to connect all device related ground pins.
Use at least a four-layer board with a power and ground plane. Place LVCMOS signals away from the LVDS lines to prevent coupling from the LVCMOS lines to the LVDS lines. Closely coupled differential lines of 100 Ω are typically recommended for LVDS interconnect. The closely coupled lines help to ensure that coupled noise will appear as common mode and thus is rejected by the receivers. The tightly coupled lines will also radiate less.
At least 9 thermal vias are necessary from the device center DAP to the ground plane. They connect the device ground to the PCB ground plane, as well as conduct heat from the exposed pad of the package to the PCB ground plane. More information on the LLP style package, including PCB design and manufacturing requirements, is provided in TI Leadless Leadframe Package (LLP) Application Report, (SNOA401).