A typical application for the UCC28C42-Q1 in an off-line flyback converter is shown in Figure 9-2. The UCC28C42-Q1 uses an inner current control loop that contains a small current sense resistor which senses the primary inductor current ramp. This current sense resistor transforms the inductor current waveform to a voltage signal that is input directly into the primary side PWM comparator. This inner loop determines the response to input voltage changes. An outer voltage control loop involves comparing a portion of the output voltage to a reference voltage at the input of an error amplifier. When used in an off-line isolated application, the voltage feedback of the isolated output is accomplished using a secondary-side error amplifier and adjustable voltage reference, such as the TL431A-Q1 or TL431B-Q1. The error signal crosses the primary to secondary isolation boundary using an opto-isolator whose collector is connected to the VREF pin and the emitter is connected to FB. The outer voltage control loop determines the response to load changes.