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BQ25638

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I²C controlled, 1-cell 5-A maximum 18-V input buck charger with NVDC power path and USB OTG output

Product details

Number of series cells 1 Charge current (max) (A) 5 Vin (max) (V) 18 Cell chemistry Li-Ion/Li-Polymer, Lithium Phosphate/LiFePO4 Battery charge voltage (min) (V) 3.5 Battery charge voltage (max) (V) 4.8 Absolute max Vin (max) (V) 26 Control topology Switch-Mode Buck Control interface I2C Features BAT temp thermistor monitoring (JEITA profile), IC thermal regulation, IINDPM (Input current limit), Input OVP, Integrated ADC, Integrated LDO, Power Path, USB C/PD compatible, USB OTG integrated, VINDPM (Input voltage threshold to maximize adaptor power) Vin (min) (V) 3.9 Rating Catalog Operating temperature range (°C) -40 to 85
Number of series cells 1 Charge current (max) (A) 5 Vin (max) (V) 18 Cell chemistry Li-Ion/Li-Polymer, Lithium Phosphate/LiFePO4 Battery charge voltage (min) (V) 3.5 Battery charge voltage (max) (V) 4.8 Absolute max Vin (max) (V) 26 Control topology Switch-Mode Buck Control interface I2C Features BAT temp thermistor monitoring (JEITA profile), IC thermal regulation, IINDPM (Input current limit), Input OVP, Integrated ADC, Integrated LDO, Power Path, USB C/PD compatible, USB OTG integrated, VINDPM (Input voltage threshold to maximize adaptor power) Vin (min) (V) 3.9 Rating Catalog Operating temperature range (°C) -40 to 85
DSBGA (YBG) 30 5.46 mm² 2.6 x 2.1
  • High-efficiency 5-A, 1.5-MHz, synchronous switch mode buck charger for single cell battery
    • >90% efficiency down to 10-mA output current from 5-V input
    • Charge current up to 5 A in 80-mA steps
    • Charge termination from 30 to 1000 mA in 10-mA steps
    • Flexible JEITA profile for safe charging over temperature
  • BATFET control to support shutdown and full system reset
    • 1.5-µA quiescent current in battery only mode
    • 1.3-µA battery leakage current in ultra-low power mode
    • 100-nA battery leakage current in shutdown
  • Supports USB On-The-Go (OTG)
    • Boost mode operation with 3.84-V to 9.6-V output
    • Programmable current limit up to 3.2 A
  • Supports a wide range of input sources
    • 3.9-V to 18-V wide input operating voltage range with 26-V absolute maximum input voltage
    • VINDPM threshold automatically tracks battery voltage
    • Input Current Optimizer (ICO) to maximize input power without overloading adapters
  • Efficient battery operation with 7-mΩ BATFET
  • Narrow VDC (NVDC) power path management
    • System instant-on with depleted or no battery
    • Battery supplement when adapter is fully loaded
  • Flexible autonomous or I 2C-controlled modes
  • Integrated 12-bit ADC for voltage, current, and temperature monitoring
    • ADCIN pin for external signal up-to 1 V
  • High accuracy
    • ±0.5% charge voltage regulation
    • ±5% charge current regulation
    • ±5% input current regulation
  • Safety
    • Battery temperature sensing
    • Thermal regulation and thermal shutdown
    • Battery/converter overcurrent protection
    • Charging safety timer
  • High-efficiency 5-A, 1.5-MHz, synchronous switch mode buck charger for single cell battery
    • >90% efficiency down to 10-mA output current from 5-V input
    • Charge current up to 5 A in 80-mA steps
    • Charge termination from 30 to 1000 mA in 10-mA steps
    • Flexible JEITA profile for safe charging over temperature
  • BATFET control to support shutdown and full system reset
    • 1.5-µA quiescent current in battery only mode
    • 1.3-µA battery leakage current in ultra-low power mode
    • 100-nA battery leakage current in shutdown
  • Supports USB On-The-Go (OTG)
    • Boost mode operation with 3.84-V to 9.6-V output
    • Programmable current limit up to 3.2 A
  • Supports a wide range of input sources
    • 3.9-V to 18-V wide input operating voltage range with 26-V absolute maximum input voltage
    • VINDPM threshold automatically tracks battery voltage
    • Input Current Optimizer (ICO) to maximize input power without overloading adapters
  • Efficient battery operation with 7-mΩ BATFET
  • Narrow VDC (NVDC) power path management
    • System instant-on with depleted or no battery
    • Battery supplement when adapter is fully loaded
  • Flexible autonomous or I 2C-controlled modes
  • Integrated 12-bit ADC for voltage, current, and temperature monitoring
    • ADCIN pin for external signal up-to 1 V
  • High accuracy
    • ±0.5% charge voltage regulation
    • ±5% charge current regulation
    • ±5% input current regulation
  • Safety
    • Battery temperature sensing
    • Thermal regulation and thermal shutdown
    • Battery/converter overcurrent protection
    • Charging safety timer

The BQ25638 is a highly-integrated 5-A switch-mode battery charge management and system power path management device for single cell Li-Ion and Li-polymer batteries. The solution is highly integrated with built-in current sensing, loop compensation, input reverse-blocking FET (RBFET, Q1), high-side switching FET (HSFET, Q2), low-side switching FET (LSFET, Q3), and battery FET (BATFET, Q4) between system and battery. It uses NVDC power path management, regulating the system slightly above the battery voltage without dropping below a configurable minimum system voltage. The low impedance power path optimizes switch-mode operation efficiency, reduces battery charging time and extends battery life during discharging phase. The I 2C serial interface with charging and system settings makes BQ25638 a truly flexible solution.

The device supports a wide range of input sources, including standard USB host port, USB charging port, and USB compliant high voltage adapter. It is compliant with USB 2.0 and USB 3.0 power specifications for input current and voltage regulation. In addition, the Input Current Optimizer (ICO) supports the detection of maximum power point of the input source without overload. BQ25638 has an ILIM pin to set the default input current limit and a TS_BIAS pin for controlled thermistor bias. The device also meets USB On-the-Go (OTG) operation power rating specification with constant current limit up to 3.2 A.

The power path management regulates the system slightly above battery voltage but does not drop below the programmable minimum system voltage. With this feature, the system maintains operation even when the battery is completely depleted or removed. When the input current limit or input voltage limit is reached, the power path management automatically reduces the charge current. If the system load continues to increase, the power path discharges the battery until the system power requirement is met. This supplement mode prevents overloading the input source.

The device initiates and completes a charging cycle without host control. By sensing the battery voltage, it charges the battery in four different phases: trickle charge, pre-charge, constant current (CC) charge and constant voltage (CV) charge. At the end of the charging cycle, the charger automatically terminates when the charge current is below a preset threshold and the battery voltage is higher than the recharge threshold. Termination is supported for TS pin COOL, PRECOOL, NORMAL, WARM and PREWARM temperature zones. When the full battery voltage falls below the programmable recharge threshold, the charger automatically starts a new charging cycle.

The charger provides various safety features for battery charging and system operations, including battery negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor monitoring, charging safety timer and overvoltage and overcurrent protections. The thermal regulation reduces charge current when the junction temperature exceeds the programmable threshold. The STAT output reports the charging status and any fault conditions. Other safety features include battery temperature sensing for charge mode and OTG boost mode, thermal shutdown and input UVLO and over-voltage protection. The PG output indicates if a good power source is present and above the programmable PG_TH value. The INT output immediately notifies the host when a fault occurs or status changes.

The device also provides a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for monitoring charge current and input/battery/system (VBUS, BAT, SYS, TS) voltages. In addition, the ADCIN pin can be used to monitor an external signal up-to 1V. The QON pin provides BATFET enable and reset control to exit ultra-low power mode or initiate a full system reset.

BQ25638 is available in a 30-ball, 2.0 mm × 2.4 mm DSBGA package.

The BQ25638 is a highly-integrated 5-A switch-mode battery charge management and system power path management device for single cell Li-Ion and Li-polymer batteries. The solution is highly integrated with built-in current sensing, loop compensation, input reverse-blocking FET (RBFET, Q1), high-side switching FET (HSFET, Q2), low-side switching FET (LSFET, Q3), and battery FET (BATFET, Q4) between system and battery. It uses NVDC power path management, regulating the system slightly above the battery voltage without dropping below a configurable minimum system voltage. The low impedance power path optimizes switch-mode operation efficiency, reduces battery charging time and extends battery life during discharging phase. The I 2C serial interface with charging and system settings makes BQ25638 a truly flexible solution.

The device supports a wide range of input sources, including standard USB host port, USB charging port, and USB compliant high voltage adapter. It is compliant with USB 2.0 and USB 3.0 power specifications for input current and voltage regulation. In addition, the Input Current Optimizer (ICO) supports the detection of maximum power point of the input source without overload. BQ25638 has an ILIM pin to set the default input current limit and a TS_BIAS pin for controlled thermistor bias. The device also meets USB On-the-Go (OTG) operation power rating specification with constant current limit up to 3.2 A.

The power path management regulates the system slightly above battery voltage but does not drop below the programmable minimum system voltage. With this feature, the system maintains operation even when the battery is completely depleted or removed. When the input current limit or input voltage limit is reached, the power path management automatically reduces the charge current. If the system load continues to increase, the power path discharges the battery until the system power requirement is met. This supplement mode prevents overloading the input source.

The device initiates and completes a charging cycle without host control. By sensing the battery voltage, it charges the battery in four different phases: trickle charge, pre-charge, constant current (CC) charge and constant voltage (CV) charge. At the end of the charging cycle, the charger automatically terminates when the charge current is below a preset threshold and the battery voltage is higher than the recharge threshold. Termination is supported for TS pin COOL, PRECOOL, NORMAL, WARM and PREWARM temperature zones. When the full battery voltage falls below the programmable recharge threshold, the charger automatically starts a new charging cycle.

The charger provides various safety features for battery charging and system operations, including battery negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor monitoring, charging safety timer and overvoltage and overcurrent protections. The thermal regulation reduces charge current when the junction temperature exceeds the programmable threshold. The STAT output reports the charging status and any fault conditions. Other safety features include battery temperature sensing for charge mode and OTG boost mode, thermal shutdown and input UVLO and over-voltage protection. The PG output indicates if a good power source is present and above the programmable PG_TH value. The INT output immediately notifies the host when a fault occurs or status changes.

The device also provides a 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for monitoring charge current and input/battery/system (VBUS, BAT, SYS, TS) voltages. In addition, the ADCIN pin can be used to monitor an external signal up-to 1V. The QON pin provides BATFET enable and reset control to exit ultra-low power mode or initiate a full system reset.

BQ25638 is available in a 30-ball, 2.0 mm × 2.4 mm DSBGA package.

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Technical documentation

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* Data sheet BQ25638I2C Controlled, 5-A, Maximum 18-V Input, Charger with NVDC Power Path Management and USB OTG Boost Output datasheet (Rev. A) PDF | HTML 04 Dec 2023
Certificate BQ25638EVM EU Declaration of Conformity (DoC) 26 Sep 2023

Design & development

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Evaluation board

BQ25638EVM — BQ25638 evaluation module for single-cell 5-A buck battery charger with NVDC power path management

<p>The BQ25638 evaluation module (EVM) is a complete charger module for evaluating the BQ25638 5.0-A, up to 18-V input, I²C-controlled single-cell (1S) NVDC charger.</p>

User guide: PDF | HTML
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DSBGA (YBG) 30 View options

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