Types of actuators

TI offers a comprehensive set of drivers that are compatible with various haptic actuator technologies. Vendors listed below offer ERM, LRA, piezo, and solenoid haptic actuators that have been tested to work with TI driver ICs.

Linear Resonant Actuators

LRAs are comprised of a simple magnet attached to a spring that modulates up and down creating its vibrations. LRAs can offer a richer user experience in a lower power solution compared to ERMs.

ERM Vendors -

LRA Vendors

LRA Vendors - AAC Technologies
LRA Vendors - Bluecom
LRA Vendors - Copal
LRA Vendors - Jahwa
LRA Vendors - Kotl
LRA Vendors - Mplus
LRA Vendors - Nidec
LRA Vendors - Precision Microdrives

Eccentric Rotating Mass

ERMs are inertial motor-based haptic actuators. This actuator has an off-center weight that rotates, creating omni-directional waves that propagate throughout the device enabling whole device haptics.

ERM - Eccentric Rotating Mass - Haptics Actuators

ERM Vendors

ERM Vendors - Copal
ERM Vendors - Jahwa
ERM Vendors - Johnson Electric
ERM Vendors - Kotl
ERM Vendors - Mplus
ERM Vendors - Nidec
ERM Vendors - Precision Microdrives


Piezo actuators bend and stretch when a voltage is applied. The voltage can be applied in a manner that rapidly cycles the piezo actuator between transformed and relaxed state which creates vibrations. Piezo actuators can also be driven to high enough frequencies to produce audible noise.

Piezos  - Haptics Actuators

Piezo Vendors

Piezo Vendors - Mide
Piezo Vendors - Mplus
Piezo Vendors - PI


Solenoids are electromagnetic devices that convert electric energy directly into linear mechanical motion. Solenoid actuators require high current and provide the strongest haptic responses.

Solenoids - Haptics Actuators

Solenoid Vendors

Solenoid Vendors - Grunner
Solenoid Vendors - Johnson Electric

Actuators comparison chart

  LRA Piezo ERM Solenoid
Motion type Linear Linear Rotation Linear
High definition haptics No Yes No No
System Power Lowest Low High Highest
Localized haptics No Yes No No
Whole-device haptics Yes Yes Yes Yes
Drive voltage 2V (RMS) 50V - 200V (peak-to-peak) 2.5V - 5.5V (peak) 20V - 50V (peak)
Response time 20-30 ms <1 ms 40-80 ms 5-10 ms
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