The TPS2310 and TPS2311 are dual-channel hot-swap controllers that use external N-channel
MOSFETs as high-side switches in power applications. Features of these devices, such as overcurrent
protection (OCP), inrush current control, output-power status reporting, and the ability to
discriminate between load transients and faults, are critical requirements for hot-swap
The TPS2310/11 devices incorporate undervoltage lockout (UVLO) and power-good
(PG) reporting to ensure the device is off at start-up and confirm the status of the output voltage
rails during operation. Each internal charge pump, capable of driving multiple MOSFETs, provides
enough gate-drive voltage to fully enhance the N-channel MOSFETs. The charge pumps control both the
rise times and fall times (dv/dt) of the MOSFETs, reducing power transients during power up/down.
The circuit-breaker functionality combines the ability to sense overcurrent conditions with a timer
function; this allows designs such as DSPs, that may have high peak currents during power-state
transitions, to disregard transients for a programmable period.
DISCH1, DISCH2 – DISCH1 and DISCH2 should be connected
to the sources of the external N-channel MOSFET transistors connected to GATE1 and GATE2,
respectively. These pins discharge the loads when the MOSFET transistors are disabled. They also
serve as reference-voltage connections for internal gate voltage-clamp circuitry.
ENABLE – ENABLE for TPS2310 is active-low. ENABLE for TPS2311 is
active-high. When the controller is enabled, both GATE1 and GATE2 voltages will power up to turn on
the external MOSFETs. When the ENABLE pin is pulled high for TPS2310 or the
ENABLE pin is pulled low for TPS2311 for more than 50 µs, the gate of the MOSFET is discharged at a
controlled rate by a current source, and a transistor is enabled to discharge the output bulk
capacitance. In addition, the device turns on the internal regulator PREREG (see VREG) when enabled
and shuts down PREREG when disabled so that total supply current is less than 5 µA.
– FAULT is an open-drain overcurrent flag output. When an
overcurrent condition in either channel is sustained long enough to charge TIMER to 0.5 V, both
channels latch off and pull this pin low. In order to turn the device back on, either the enable
pin has to be toggled or the input power has to be cycled.
GATE1, GATE2 – GATE1 and GATE2 connect to the gates of
external N-channel MOSFET transistors. When the device is enabled, internal charge-pump circuitry
pulls these pins up by sourcing approximately 15 µA to each. The turnon slew rates depend upon the
capacitance present at the GATE1 and GATE2 terminals. If desired, the turnon slew rates can be
further reduced by connecting capacitors between these pins and ground. These capacitors also
reduce inrush current and protect the device from false overcurrent triggering during powerup. The
charge-pump circuitry generates gate-to-source voltages of 9 V–12 V across the external MOSFET
IN1, IN2 – IN1 and IN2 should be connected to the
power sources driving the external N-channel MOSFET transistors connected to GATE1 and GATE2,
respectively. The TPS2310/TPS2311 draws its operating current from IN1, and both channels remains
disabled until the IN1 power supply has been established. The IN1 channel has been constructed to
support 3-V, 5-V, or 12-V operation, while the IN2 channel has been constructed to support 3-V or
ISENSE1, ISENSE2, ISET1, ISET2 – ISENSE1 and ISENSE2,
in combination with ISET1 and ISET2, implement overcurrent sensing for GATE1 and GATE2. ISET1 and
ISET2 set the magnitude of the current that generates an overcurrent fault, through external
resistors connected to ISET1 and ISET2. An internal current source draws 50 µA from ISET1 and
ISET2. With a sense resistor from IN1 to ISENSE1 or from IN2 to ISENSE2, which is also connected to
the drains of external MOSFETs, the voltage on the sense resistor reflects the load current. An
overcurrent condition is assumed to exist if ISENSE1 is pulled below ISET1 or if ISENSE2 is pulled
below ISET2. To ensure proper circuit breaker operation, VI(ISENSE1) and
VI(ISET1) should never exceed VI(IN1). Similarly,
VI(ISENSE2) and VI(ISET2) should never exceed
PWRGD1, PWRGD2 – PWRGD1 and PWRGD2 signal the presence
of undervoltage conditions on VSENSE1 and VSENSE2, respectively. These pins are open-drain outputs
and are pulled low during an undervoltage condition. To minimize erroneous PWRGDx responses from
transients on the voltage rail, the voltage sense circuit incorporates a 20-µs deglitch filter.
When VSENSEx is lower than the reference voltage (about 1.23 V), PWRGDx is active low to indicate
an undervoltage condition on the power-rail voltage. PWRGDx may not correctly report power
conditions when the device is disabled, because there is no gate drive power for the PWRGD output
transistor in the disable mode, or, in other words, PWRGD is floating. Therefore, PWRGD is pulled
up to its pullup power supply rail in disable mode.
TIMER – A capacitor on TIMER sets the time during which
the power switch can be in overcurrent before turning off. When the overcurrent protection circuits
sense an excessive current, a current source is enabled which charges the capacitor on TIMER. Once
the voltage on TIMER reaches approximately 0.5 V, the circuit-breaker latch is set and the power
switch is latched off. Power must be recycled or the ENABLE pin must be toggled to restart the
controller. In high-power or high-temperature applications, a minimum 50-pF capacitor is strongly
recommended from TIMER to ground, to prevent any false triggering.
VREG – VREG is the output of an internal low-dropout
voltage regulator, where IN1 is the input. The regulator is used to generate a regulated voltage
source, less than 5.5 V, for the device. A 0.1-µF ceramic capacitor should be connected between
VREG and ground to aid in noise rejection. In this configuration, upon disabling the device, the
internal low-dropout regulator will also be disabled, which removes power from the internal
circuitry and allows the device to be placed in low-quiescent-current mode. In applications where
IN1 is less than 5.5 V, VREG and IN1 may be connected together. However, under these conditions,
disabling the device does not place the device in low-quiescent-current mode, because the internal
low-dropout voltage regulator is being bypassed, thereby keeping internal circuitry operational. If
VREG and IN1 are connected together, a 0.1-µF ceramic capacitor between VREG and ground is not
needed if IN1 already has a bypass capacitor of 1 µF to 10 µF.
VSENSE1, VSENSE2 – VSENSE1 and VSENSE2 can be used to
detect undervoltage conditions on external circuitry. If VSENSE1 senses a voltage below
approximately 1.23 V, PWRGD1 is pulled low. Similarly, a voltage less than 1.23 V on VSENSE2 causes
PWRGD2 to be pulled low.