Motor Control: Permanent Magnet

Block Diagram (SBD) for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) System featuring microcontrollers, gate drivers, isolation, industrial interface and power management.

Block Diagram

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Design Considerations

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) Overview

The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is very similar to an AC induction motor or brushless DC motor (BLDC). They all have permanent magnets on the rotor and windings on the stator.

The PMSM motor is typically controlled with a sinusoidal waveform, whereas the BLDC motor is typically controlled with a trapezoidal signal, which is also known as six-step commutation.

Sinusoidal control of a PMSM is efficient and provides smooth motor operation, which minimizes vibration and acoustic noises. Using field-oriented control (FOC) techniques for PMSM motors also minimizes torque ripple and electromagnetic interference generated by the system. PMSM motors provide higher power density for their size compared to AC inductor motors (ACIMs).

Microcontrollers

TI's C2000™ family of MCUs can control PMSM motors using either scalar or vector-control techniques. Knowledge of rotor position is important for efficient control of a PMSM motor. The rotor position can be detected by hall sensors or rotary encoders attached to the motor. These sensor inputs are used in a sensored feedback control system.

Rotor position can also be estimated by using back emf voltage information. This mode of feedback control eliminates the need for sensors and additional wires. Position or speed estimators can also be used to calculate rotor position.

Integrated high-speed 12-bit ADC converters, high-resolution pulse-width modulators (PWMs) and a quadrature encoder input (QEI) on C2000 MCUs make them ideal for implementing PMSM motor control. The C2000 MCU core's ability to execute complex mathematical functions in a short time makes this family of MCUs ideal for implementing vector-control techniques and controlling multiple motors at the same time. The PWMs in this family have programmable deadband delays to drive high- and low-side gate drivers.

The Stellaris™ family of MCUs offers an ARM-based solution to customers who prefer an open architecture core. These MCUs also offer integrated ADC and motor-control-specific PWMs and QEI inputs for sensored control. Their hardware-based fault-detection systems shut down systems faster without intervention from the software. These MCUs can also be used to implement scalar and vector-control techniques.

The RM4 and TMS570 Hercules™ Safety MCUs offer an ARM Cortex-R4F based solution and are certified suitable for use in systems that need to achieve IEC61508 SIL-3 safety levels. These MCUs also offer integrated floating point, 12 bit ADCs, motor-control-specific PWMs and encoder inputs via its flexible HET Timer co-processor. Hercules Safety MCUs can also be used to implement scalar and vector-control techniques and support a range of performance requirements.

Isolation

TI digital isolators have logic input and output buffers separated by TI's silicon dioxide (SiO2) isolation barrier, providing 4 kV of isolation. Used in conjunction with isolated power supplies, these devices block high voltages, isolate grounds, and prevent noise currents from entering the local ground and interfering with or damaging sensitive circuitry.

Interface/Connectivity

Traditional analog RS-232/RS-485 interfaces remain popular choices for motor-control applications. Looking forward, designers are integrating mainstream interfaces such as Ethernet, USB and CAN into their products. TI is committed to providing solutions for both traditional and emerging industrial interfaces. For example, TI recently introduced the ISO1050, the world's first isolated CAN transceiver.

Power Management

Texas Instruments offers power management IC solutions ranging from standard ICs to high-performance, plug-in, power-brick, digital-power MOSFETs and integrated power modules. From AC/DC and DC/DC power supplies, linear regulators and non-isolated switching DC/DC regulators to PMICs and power and display solutions, Texas Instruments power management IC solutions can help you complete your project.

Application Notes (5)

Title Abstract Type Size (KB) Date Views
HTM 9 KB 01 Jul 2013 1594
HTM 9 KB 01 Jul 2013 2038
HTM 9 KB 01 Jul 2013 1339
HTM 9 KB 01 Jul 2013 776
HTM 9 KB 01 Jul 2013 1187
    

Selection and Solution Guides

Selection Guides (5)

Title Abstract Type Size (KB) Date Views
PDF 2.8 MB 25 Jun 2014 68191
PDF 4.63 MB 22 May 2014 4100
PDF 9.51 MB 01 May 2014 58354
PDF 6.82 MB 25 Mar 2014 13208
PDF 16.33 MB 17 Nov 2011 1058

Solution Guides (1)

Title Abstract Type Size (KB) Date Views
PDF 5.83 MB 26 Oct 2012 14480

Tools and Software

Name Part # Company Software/Tool Type
C2000 Resolver to Digital Conversion Kit TMDSRSLVR Texas Instruments Evaluation Modules & Boards
Code Composer Studio (CCS) Integrated Development Environment (IDE) CCSTUDIO Texas Instruments SW Development Tools, IDEs, Compilers
Dual Motor Control and PFC Developer's Kit TMDS2MTRPFCKIT Texas Instruments Evaluation Modules & Boards
High Voltage Motor Control and PFC Developer's Kit TMDSHVMTRPFCKIT Texas Instruments Evaluation Modules & Boards

Product Bulletin & White Papers

Product Bulletin (1)

Title Abstract Type Size (MB) Date Views
PDF 216 KB 17 Oct 2012 2663

White Papers (3)

Title Abstract Type Size (MB) Date Views
PDF 1.17 MB 04 Oct 2012 2196
PDF 179 KB 20 Apr 2012 3145
PDF 1.64 MB 02 Sep 2011 2120

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